By Wold A., Ruff J.K. (eds.)
The volumes during this carrying on with sequence supply a compilation of present recommendations and ideas in inorganic artificial chemistry. contains inorganic polymer syntheses and coaching of vital inorganic solids, syntheses utilized in the improvement of pharmacologically energetic inorganic compounds, small-molecule coordination complexes, and comparable compounds. additionally includes precious info on transition organometallic compounds together with species with metal-metal cluster molecules. All syntheses offered right here were established.
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2. Carotenoids The principal pigment in milk fat is b-carotene, accounting for about 95% of the total carotenoids present. In milk, b-carotene is found in the core of the milk fat globules and is absent from the membrane (Jensen and Nielsen, 1996). The concentration of b-carotene in milk depends on the level of b-carotene in feed and on the breed of cow. Carotenoid pigments are particularly high in fresh grass, but substantially lower in a mix of concentrate and hay, a normal winter feed. Channel Island cows, Jerseys and Guernseys, have a higher level of b-carotene and a lower level of vitamin A in their milkfat than other breeds, such as Friesians.
Vitamin E is an eVective scavenger of lipid peroxy radicals and is eYcient at protecting unsaturated fatty acids against lipid peroxidation. The chemistry of vitamin E is rather complex as there are eight compounds, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols, which exhibit vitamin E activity. 03 for d-tocopherol. In milk, a-tocopherol accounts for virtually all of vitamin E, although very small amounts of btocopherols and g-tocopherols are present. Also, the concentration of a-tocopherol in milk fat varies widely, with the level in samples of commercial butter ranging from 18 to 35 mg=g fat (MAFF, 1999).
1984). The total vitamin A bioactivity can be obtained by summation of the concentrations and activities of the diVerent forms of vitamin A. In milk fat, this gives an average value of approximately 12 retinol equivalents/g fat or 40 IU/g fat. Vitamin E is an eVective scavenger of lipid peroxy radicals and is eYcient at protecting unsaturated fatty acids against lipid peroxidation. The chemistry of vitamin E is rather complex as there are eight compounds, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols, which exhibit vitamin E activity.