By Nigel Grimwade
Grimwade has performed his homework and has written a truly high-quality assessment of the GATT procedure. The publication is such a lot appropriate for a scholar of the foreign exchange procedure who's searching for a historical past of the present WTO procedure, as this e-book used to be released in 1996.
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Extra info for International Trade Policy: A Contemporary Analysis
In fact, the empirical evidence for this proposition is mixed. Moreover, even if there is such a tendency at work, it is by no means clear that it should result in a welfare loss for developing countries because not all primary producers are developing countries and not all developing countries are primary producers. Another concern arises from the high volatility of primary commodity prices. Over-dependence on a few primary commodities for export earnings could mean that developing countries face a highly unstable balance of payments.
At the 1988 Mid-term Review, four Industrial Tariffs 39 aspects of tariff liberalisation were highlighted as being necessary to address. These were tariff escalation, tariff peaks, low ‘nuisance’ tariffs and the need to increase the level of bindings (GATT, 1988). It was further agreed that the target should be an overall tariff reduction of ‘at the minimum, the [tariff] reduction achieved by formula participants in the Tokyo Round’, that the scope of tariff bindings should be widened and that special account should be taken of the needs of developing countries (GATT, 1988).
These take place in the so-called ‘rounds’. Industrial Tariffs 33 The procedure adopted is that countries provide schedules listing tariffs to be bound: that is, the country concerned agrees not to levy a tariff in excess of the rate stipulated in the tariff schedule. Concessions take the form of either adding products to the list of tariffs to be bound or binding tariffs at lower rates than before. In the early rounds of the GATT, tariff bindings were relatively more important than actual tariff cuts.