Download Internationalization of Banks: Patterns, Strategies and by Alfred Slager PDF

By Alfred Slager

An expanding variety of the world's biggest banks now have extra actions open air their domestic kingdom than inside. yet what can we find out about the results of internationalization, and what's a winning enterprise version for the long run? This e-book explores the formula, implementation and review of internationalization techniques in banking. The foreign innovations of the world's top banks in 8 international locations are tested, strategic styles are pointed out and the results on profitability, balance and shareholder functionality are analyzed.

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Extra resources for Internationalization of Banks: Patterns, Strategies and Performance

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Historically, the central banks have played an important role as regulators, their interest being the control of monetary policy and financial stability. Domestically, various regulators have been established, for banks and/or securities. 3 lists major regulatory developments between 1980 and 2000, clustered per region and country. The table indicates that relatively many regulatory events were shaped in a short period: from the mid-1980s until the early 1990s. The capital adequacy regulation codified in the Basle Accord is regulation specifically designed for international active banks, as the subsequent discussion will show the implementation has especially influenced internationalization of Japanese banks, hastening their retreat from international banking.

A single market in financial services does not necessarily imply a homogenous market for all services; “retail customers will continue to do business with their familiar institutions in their countries, while wholesale market arbitrage and potential competition ensure that product prices are brought closely into line throughout the EC” (Chrystal & Coughlin, 1992). Or as The Economist observed in 1992, “the merger wave is a preemptive strike at competition that has not materialized” and “as merged banks [in the European Union] reduce local competition, they raise the level of competition on a European scale” (The Economist, 1992).

This common passport allowed home country authorization, but the credit institution must conform to all local laws. Finally, the directive is supported by the Own Funds Directive, establishing common definitions for the bank’s capital base, and the Solvency Ratio Directive, where these definitions are used to establish minimum asset ratios for all credit institutions. 11 Strict regulatory controls discouraged financial transactions and internationalization of financial markets did Banking since the 1980s: Challenges and Issues 27 not grow substantially relative to economic growth (Arora, 1995).

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