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By SenGupta A.K., Moyer B.A. (eds.)

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Note: S: storage. T: transmute by thermal (therm) or fast (fast) neutrons. F. Ans: fissile actinides. ASTM C788-98: Standard specification for nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution or crystals. ASTM C833-01: Standard specification for sintered (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets. 1 Molecular Modeling Approach Molecular design has enjoyed a long history, from the preliminary “trial-and-error” stage to the contemporary computer-aided “molecular modeling” stage. In this chapter, the latter, in silico design, for nuclear applications is focused on and reviewed.

The reaction rate of AHA is large enough to use centrifugal contactors. 99% (126, 183–188). The UREX+ process also enables the effective separation of Tc (189). For the design of UREX flowsheets, the AMUSE code has been used effectively. AMUSE is an updated version of the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM), which was developed during the 1980s and 1990s to design multistage countercurrent flowsheets for the TRans-Uranium EXtraction (TRUEX) process (190). GTM was renewed by adopting the SASSE model (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) (191–194), a modified version of the SEPHIS code (195) and Spreadsheet Algorithm for Speciation and Partitioning Equilibria (SASPE).

D. Use a mixture of two extractants; one enables extraction of both Ans and Lns from high acid solutions and the other enables extraction of Ans and Lns at low acidities. By using the mixed extractants, method (B) of one cycle is satisfied. Actually, ligands capable of utilizing method (A) have not yet been developed. 2). Ligands such as ­carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides (CMPO) and diamides are candidates for method (B). However, most ­selective stripping of Ans is undertaken by using complexants under conditions of low acidity or pH region where the bidentate extractants lose their affinity toward Lns.

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