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By Ali Gheissari

Since the center of the 19th century, Iranian intellectuals were preoccupied through problems with political and social reform, Iran's relation with the trendy West, and autocracy, or arbitrary rule. Drawing from a detailed examining of a large array of fundamental resources, this publication bargains a thematic account of the Iranian intelligentsia from the Constitutional stream of 1905 to the post-1979 revolution.

Ali Gheissari exhibits how in Iran, as in lots of different international locations, intellectuals were the major mediators among the forces of culture and modernity and feature contributed considerably to the formation of the trendy Iranian self photo. His research of intellectuals' reaction to a few basic questions, resembling nationalism, id, and the relation among Islam and sleek politics, sheds new gentle at the components that ended in the Iranian Revolution—the 20th century's first significant departure from Western political ideals—and is helping clarify the complexities surrounding the reception of Western ideologies within the center East.

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Challenging absolutism and arbitrary rule had to be accompanied by necessary measures and proposals as to how arbitrary political power should be controlled and regulated. It was around this theme that the idea of law applied to preserve social justice came into being. 73 Although both groups were united in this, it was also on the question of law that differences emerged between them. 74 Most tended to dissociate religion from politics; some, such as Mirzâ Fath-Ali Âkhoundzâdeh, roundly rejected religion in general and Islam in particular.

These children too will grow up to be like them: impolite and ill-mannered, of no use to the world of religion or that of the country, except corrupting the Islamic element. ” 91 The subject of women and their civil rights, and the necessary steps toward the improvement of their position in the society, received wide coverage in the periodicals and some of the literary works of the period. On the eve of the Constitutional movement, those who addressed the question of women normally did so in relation to the major issue of the day, despotism and arbitrary rule.

73 Although both groups were united in this, it was also on the question of law that differences emerged between them. 74 Most tended to dissociate religion from politics; some, such as Mirzâ Fath-Ali Âkhoundzâdeh, roundly rejected religion in general and Islam in particular. Still, in the early phases of the Constitutional movement, the overall attitude of such modernists toward Islam was a combination of acceptance, caution, tolerance, and pragmatism. 75 Malkam was in many ways typical of the newly emerging intellectuals, with his preference for Western ideas and values.

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