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By David Nicolle

After Saladin's nice victory on the conflict of Hattin in 1137, Outremer, as medieval westerners referred to as the remainder Latin or Catholic enclaves within the jap Mediterranean, used to be now not a probability to Islam. Its army elites most popular to reside in peace, targeting alternate up to at the defence of Christendom's holy areas. during this, the 1st booklet within the English language to objectively examine the knights of the Latin East, David Nicolle offers a well-balanced and expert account of the Western warriors who defended the Crusader territories for thus lengthy.

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1. 14 An integral part of the empire’s eastern domains by the second century ce, Arab groups must have been aware of the wider Roman sphere. 22 It seems rather improbable that such 13 Bowersock, Arabia (1994). 14 Millar, East (1993), pp. 10, 66, 75, 274, 294; Retsö, Arabs (2003), pp. 364–504. 15 Knauf, ‘Arabo-Aramaic’ (2010), p. 230 n. 104. Cf. Retsö, Arabs (2003), pp. 364–91, on the question whether Nabateans were Arabs. 16 al-Talhi and al-Daire, ‘Presence’ (2005), pp. 205–17. For other Latin inscriptions on the Arabian Peninsula, see Costa, ‘Inscription’ (1977), pp.

Arab groups involved in Roman-Byzantine campaigns of the sixth century do not seem vol. 1, p. 86, ignores his name but mentions his conversion and his death at the hands of the pagan Decius; Ibn Khaldūn, tārīkh, ed. Zakkār and Shaḥāda, vol. 2, p. 236, mentions his genealogy, the duration of his reign, his conversion, and his murder at the hands of Decius. On Philip’s sympathy for Christianity, see Prickartz, ‘Philippe’ (1995), pp. 146–50. 23 See the medieval definition by Isidorus Hispalensis (d.

52–71; Eddé, ‘Saint Louis’ (2000), pp. 72–111; Renterghem, ‘Réaction’ (2000), pp. 37–59; Humphreys, ‘Dāwiyya’ (2004), p. 204; Chevedden, ‘Interpretation’ (2006), pp. 90–136; Leclercq, Portraits (2010); Mallett, Reactions (2014). 98 Oesterle, ‘Papst’ (2008), pp. 57–72; König, ‘Ausstrahlung’ (2010), pp. 1–52; Beihammer, ‘Kirche’ (2013), pp. 267–97. 99 Gottschalk, ‘al-anbaratūr’ (1958), pp. 31–6; Oesterle, ‘Papst’ (2008), pp. 57–72; König, ‘Ausstrahlung’ (2010), pp. 1–52. On Frederick II, see Leder, ‘Kaiser’ (2008), pp.

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