By Federal Research Division
Western indulgence with Lebanon led to February 1984. The bombing of the U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut on October 23, 1983, with the lack of 241 American lives, and the demise of a few fifty nine French peacekeeping troops in an identical blast that day, proved how risky the reconstruction surroundings used to be (see inner protection and Terrorism , ch. 5). battling within the Shuf Mountains throughout the autumn of 1983 illustrated the trouble of exclaiming govt keep watch over even if occupying forces pulled again. lots of the MNF troops pulled out with the partition of Beirut and the renewed fragmentation of the Lebanese military, even if the French and Italians not on time their departure for humanitarian purposes.
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Extra info for Lebanon, A Country Study
The Shamun Era, 1952-58 On September 23, 1952, the Chamber of Deputies elected Camille Shamun to succeed Khuri. In the spring of 1953, relations between President Shamun and Jumblatt deteriorated as Jumblatt criticized Shamun for accommodating himself to the traditional pattern of Lebanese politics and for toning down the radical ideals that had led to the change of government in 1952. The balance between religious communities, provided for in the National Pact, was precariously maintained, and undercurrents of hostility were discernible.
Geographically, Mount Lebanon represents the central part of present-day Lebanon, which historically has had a Christian majority. Greater Lebanon, on the other hand, created at the expense of Greater Syria, was formally constituted under the League of Nations mandate granted to France in 1920 and includes the Biqa Valley, Beirut, southern Lebanon (up to the border with Palestine/Israel), and northern Lebanon (up to the border with Syria). In practice, the terms Lebanon and Mount Lebanon tend to be used interchangeably by historians until the formal establishment of the Mandate.
Additional shifts occurred among Lebanese military and political groups. The Shias continued to grow in importance, and in 1980 clashes broke out in the south between Amal, the Shia military arm, which was becoming increasingly a political instrument, and Fatah, a part of the PLO (see Sectarian Groups , ch. 4). On the Christian side, the Lebanese Front experienced severe internal disagreements. In July 1980 Bashir Jumayyil and his Phalangist militia scored a resounding triumph over the Tigers, the militia of the National Liberals under Camille Shamun and his son Dani.