By Antonio R. Damasio
"In the 17th century, the thinker Spinoza tested the position emotion performed in human survival and tradition. but enormous quantities of years and lots of major medical advances later, the neurobiological roots of pleasure and sorrow stay a secret. at the present time, we spend numerous assets doctoring our emotions with alcohol, pharmaceuticals, future health golf equipment, treatment, holiday retreats, and different forms of intake; nonetheless, the interior workings of our minds-what emotions are, how they paintings, and what they mean-are mostly an unexplored frontier.
With medical services and literary facility, bestselling writer and global recognized neuroscientist Antonio Damasio concludes his groundbreaking trilogy in searching for Spinoza, exploring the cerebral tactics that maintain us alive and make existence worthy dwelling.
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Additional resources for Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain
The spino-eerebeIlar traet (see Fig. 5) is a potential path to relay proprioeeptive feedbaek to the lobus caudalis. The tendons of the eleetrie organ in mormyrids, extensively innervated by spinal sensory nerves (Bruns, 1971, eited by Maler, 1974) eould also monitor the animal's tall posture. A long tai! filament thus enables an animal to enhanee 'eleetrie images on its body surfaee. In some species of South American eleetrie fish, the tail filament may be several times longer than the body proper itself (Hopkins, per~.
0 Gain ~ - - - :- - :- -. 5 -% -IT ~ •• • • o - i -40 i -30 i -20 - - - - • I i -10 - - . - - . =. =. =====~ ===: • • Phase Fig. 32. Gain and phase of Eigenmannia's Following Response as a function of ~f, the difference between stimulus frequency, S, and EOD frequency, F t , during a JAR. ~f values near zero (bar above abscissa) can only be maintained by frequency clamping of the stimulus generator, as the animal's F t otherwise will diverge from S. Open symbols are values obtained in the absence of electric stimuli, with dashed Unes indicating ± standard deviation range.
39). Since tminterrupted series of coincidences are most detrimental to electrolocation, gymnotoid pulse species should be expected to avoid their occurrence. Cross correlations between EOD events of two specimens with similar EOD frequeneies indeed show lowered probabilities of coineidenees (Fig. , during periods of high activity and alertness. 1 A a ! L n . -----0 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ·n eonseeutive number of B's EOO Fig. 39. (a) A and B fire at frequencies fA and f B respeetively, their EOD intervals are _1_ and _1_ respeetively.