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By Shin-ichi Ohtani, Ryoichi Fujii, Michael Hesse, Robert L. Lysak

Published by means of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.

The magnetosphere is an open procedure that interacts with the sunlight wind. during this approach, sunlight wind strength always permeates assorted areas of the magnetosphere via electromagnetic tactics, which we will be able to good describe when it comes to present platforms. in reality, our skill to take advantage of a number of ways to learn magnetospheric present platforms has lately triggered major development in our figuring out of the phenomenon. extraordinary assurance of satellite tv for pc and floor ]based observations has complex international techniques to magnetospheric present platforms, while complex measurements of electromagnetic fields and debris have introduced new insights approximately micro ]processes. elevated machine features have enabled us to simulate the dynamics not just of the terrestrial magnetosphere but additionally the magnetospheres of different planets. in line with such advancements, the current quantity revisits extraordinary concerns approximately magnetospheric present systems.Content:

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21,741750, 1973. Moore, T. , W. K. Peterson,C. T. Russell, M. O. Chandler, M. R. Collier, H. L. Collin, P. D. Craven, R. Fitzenreiter, B. STRANGEWAY ETAL. 29 Giles,andC. J. , 26, 2339-2342, region with vector magnetic field changesassociatedwith field-alignedcurrents,J. Geophys. , 79, 2501-2502, 1974a. 1999. Zmuda, A. , andJ. C. Armstrong,The diurnalflow patternof Newell, P. -I. Meng, and K. M. Lyons,Suppression of disfield-alignedcurrents,J. Geophys. , 79, 4611-4619, 1974b. creteauroraeby sunlight,Nature,381,766-767, 1996.

Heikkila, 1997]. In the following, we shall associate the Ej paradigm as the approachof singleparticlecalculationor kinetic analysis (with full consideration of the collective effect) to distinguishthe MHD approachof the Bu paradigm. We emphasizethat the Ej paradigm,at least in here,doesnot statethe Bu approachto be alwaysinvalid but its applicability has to be judged on a case-by-case It is importantat the outsetto elaboratein moredetails what each paradigm is meant in this paper to avoid misunderstanding.

STRANGEWAY At the ionosphericendof the field linesthe field-aligned currents close via a horizontal current. The resultant iono- sphericJxB force will acceleratethe ionosphericplasma, and we canconsiderthe field linesto be pulling the plasma in the directionof the magnetopause flow. This motionwill be retardedby the collisional drag of the ionosphere,as ionosphericions are forcedto move throughthe neutral atmosphere. For collisionsto act as a drag,the flow must of course be in the same direction as the JxB force.

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