By Michel Kefer, Johan Van Der Auwera (eds.)
The sequence is a platform for contributions of all types to this swiftly constructing box. common difficulties are studied from the point of view of person languages, language households, language teams, or language samples. Conclusions are the results of a deepened research of empirical facts. specified emphasis is given to little-known languages, whose research could shed new mild on long-standing difficulties more often than not linguistics.
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Extra resources for Meaning and Grammar: Cross-Linguistic Perspectives
Modern theories of isomorphism differ crucially from those offered prior to the work of Jakobson. The oldest recorded version of isomorphism dates at least from Heraclitus (c. 545 —c. 485 B. C. ), and may be formulated as in (1): (1) WORD REAL-WORLD DESIGNATUM Here the focus was on the bond between language and the physical world, and whether a, a morpheme (usually interpreted as a word) had a motivated ("natural") or arbitrary ("conventional") relationship to a", the real-world thing it designated (see further Joseph 1990).
In this case, b" and c" are likely to be about general properties of intonation: Hyman (1975: 209), for instance, has claimed that pitch change is more easily perceived at the end than at the beginning of the intonation contour (cf. also Bolinger 1985). It would thus appear to be possible for isomorphism at one level (here a") to coexist with heteromorphism at another (here a'). 4. Refining Greenberg's Universal 9 If Universal 8 is truly heteromorphic for the reasons I have stated, then what about Universal 9 (Greenberg 1966 a: 81)?
321—349. Hawkins, John A. 1983 Word order universals. New York: Academic Press. 1985 "Complementary methods in Universal Grammar: a reply to Coopmans". Language 61: 5 6 9 - 5 8 7 . Hawkins, John Α. —Gary Gilligan 1988 "Prefixing and suffixing universals in relation to basic word order". Lingua 74: 2 1 9 - 2 5 9 . Hawkins, John A. ) 1988 Explaining language universals. Oxford: Blackwell. 42 John E. Joseph Hockett, Charles F. ), 1—29. Hyman, Larry M. 1975 Phonology: Theory and analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.