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By Josef W. Meri

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Bayhaqi, Abu’l-Fazl,’’ Encyclopaedia Iranica III: 889–94. Further Reading The literature on Bayhaqi is extensive. His History has been printed in many editions and supplemented by glossaries and lexicographical studies of the Persian text; the work has also been translated (see Yusofi 1989). The above bibliography is necessarily limited to the titles referred to in the article. ABU ’L-FADL ‘ALLAMI (1551–1602) Historian, courtier, ideologue, and intellectual alter ego of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Abu ’l-Fadl was born in 1551 in Agra.

Vol. 1, 109–11. ABU HANIFA AL-NU‘MAN Abu Hanifa al-Nu‘man b. Thabit b. Zuta, theologian and jurist, is the eponymous founder of the Hanafi legal school. He was born in Kufa circa AH 80/699 CE and died in 150/767 in a prison in Baghdad at the age of 70. His grandfather Zuta is said to have been brought over from Kabul to Kufa, where he settled after being set free. There are not many details available about Abu Hanifa’s life in Kufa. Sources report that he worked there as a silk merchant and also that he acquired scholarly training in the religious law and hadith.

He is said to have spent generously for the members of his household and given away an equal amount as alms for the poor, and he would also meet the needs of his indigent students. Like other pious scholars, his day was given over to teaching and prayer. His daily routine began with the morning prayer in a mosque, after which he would answer his students’ questions until about noon. After the noon prayer, he would teach again until the night prayer. Then he would return home and, after a short rest, later go back to the mosque and worship until morning prayer.

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