By Leila Fawaz, C. A. Bayly, Robert Ilbert
Among the Nineties and Twenties, towns within the colossal quarter stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean have been experiencing political, social, monetary, and cultural adjustments that have been set in movement at the least because the early 19th century. because the age of pre-colonial empires gave option to colonial and nationwide states, there has been a feeling specific liberalism of tradition and financial system have been irretrievably misplaced to a extra illiberal age.Avoiding such dichotomies as East/West and modernity/tradition, this publication offers a comparative research of contested models of the idea that of modernity. The ebook examines not just the "high" tradition of students and the literati, but in addition renowned tune, the visible arts, and journalism. The individuals contain dialogue of how during which the enterprise in either commodities and ideas was once performed within the more and more cosmopolitan towns of the time.
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Extra info for Modernity and Culture from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, 1890Ð1920
During the second half of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese were in a position to hamper the arrival of ships in the area near southern Arabia. To this was added, from the last quarter of the sixteenth century, danger from pirates—at ﬁrst Malabars, Baloutches, and Arabs,51 and, from the second decade of the seventeenth century, Europeans. But the most important factor was the development of an alternate route, when the growing presence of the Ottomans in the northern Gulf after 1546 and the end of the wars with the Safavids in 1555 allowed trade there and siphoned off part of the trafﬁc through the Red Sea.
C. J. Baker, “Economic Reorganization and the Slump in South and Southeast Asia,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 23, 3 (1981); Sugata Bose, The Indian Ocean Rim (forthcoming). See Sugata Bose’s paper in this volume. See C. A. Bayly’s and Ayesha Jalal’s papers in this volume. See Susan Bayly’s paper in this volume. See Robin Ostle’s and Elisabeth Kendall’s papers in this volume. See Juan Cole’s paper in this volume. See C. A. Bayly’s paper in this volume. Introduction 25 33. Robert L.
Even if the Red Sea provided a formidable barrier to personnel moving from east to west, trade cycles and systems of government across this large Ottoman-SafavidMughal area were very closely correlated. 47 It is an obvious point, but still sometimes forgotten, that the dominant elites in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century India were Turks and Persians. Their relations with the local Rajput magnates bore a family resemblance to the relations of cultural assimilation and occasional coercion sustained between the Ottoman rulers and the Balkan Christians.