Download Molecular Diagnosis of Cancer: Methods and Protocols 2nd by Joseph E. Roulston, John M. S. Bartlett PDF

By Joseph E. Roulston, John M. S. Bartlett

A various choice of without difficulty reproducible tools to be used in melanoma detection. Highlights contain FISH-based methodologies at the moment utilized in the analysis of sturdy tumors, the molecular prognosis of genetic abnormalities by way of DNA array technologies-including sequence-specific oligonucleotide arrays and CGH arrays-and methodologies directed on the detection of epigenetic occasions and at quantitative gene expression. The authors follow those novel diagnostic strategies to a vast diversity of instances taken from cytology, good tumor pathology, hematology, and infrequent telephone detection, paying particular awareness to strength destiny advancements and the sensible difficulties of facing quality controls and accuracy.

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Controls for Prognostic and Predictive Assays The main predictive value of markers such as ER, PR, and HER-2 lies not in the presence or absence of staining in an invasive tumor but in the “quantity” of antigen present, as the amount of expression is predictive of the likelihood of response to therapy. Consequently, for many prognostic and predictive markers, it is not only vital to ensure that localization is appropriate (technical assay specificity) but also that the combined “strength” of the assay (technical assay sensitivity) is appropriate and does not vary from one day to the next.

Ward B. , Cruickshank, D. , Tucker D. , et al. (1987) Independent expression in serum of three tumor-associated antigens: CA125, placental alkaline phosphatase and HMFG2 in human ovarian carcinoma. Br. J. Obstet. Gynæcol. 94, 696–698. 13. Bormer, O. , and Nustad K. (1998) Sensible use of tumor markers in routine practice. Proc. UK NEQAS Meeting 3, 140–145. 14. Hayes, D. , Bast, R. , Desch, C. , et al. (1996) Tumor marker utility grading system: a framework to evaluate clinical utility of tumor markers.

One approach is for all laboratories to use the exact same test, the exact same tissue preparatory methods, and the exact same system of evaluation. The HercepTest, developed and marketed by DakoCytomation, is one such approach, with the companies insistence that users of the HercepTest kit adhere to strict guidelines on how the tissue is fixed, through to the use of a detailed technical method and interpretation of the results. Individual laboratories are “trained” on both the technical aspects of this FDA-approved methodology and in evaluating the results using the initial clinical trials assay (CTA) scoring system (25).

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