By Reuven Amitai-Preiss
For sixty years, from 1260 to 1323, the Mamluk country in Egypt and Syria was once at warfare with the Ilkhanid Mongols established in Persia. this is often the 1st accomplished research of the political and armed forces elements of the early years of the struggle, from the conflict of 'Ayn Jalut in 1260 to the conflict of Homs in 1281. In among those campaigns, the Mamluk-Ilkhanid fight used to be endured within the demeanour of a 'cold warfare' with each side interested in border skirmishes, diplomatic manoeuvres, and espionage. the following, as within the significant battles, the Mamluks frequently maintained the higher hand, constructing themselves because the optimal Muslim strength on the time. through drawing on formerly untapped Persian and Arabic resources, the writer sheds new mild at the war of words, studying the struggle in the context of Mongol/Mamluk family members with the Byzantine Empire, the Latin West and the Crusading states.
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Extra info for Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281
Vatican, fols. 203b, 217b; Maqrlzi, Kitab al-suluk, ed. M. CA-F. c Ashur (Cairo, 1934—73), 1:410-11; Ibn al-$uqal, Tall kitab wafayat alayan, ed. J. Sublet (Damascus, 1974), 78, 167; Ibn Kathlr, 13:215. Qirtay [Qirtay] al-Khaznadart, Ta'rikh al-nawadir, MS. Gotha 1655, fol. 57a-b; cited in Ibn al-Furat, MS. Vatican, fol. 218b; Maqrlzi, 1:415-16. A parallel letter, with both similar and convergent parts, is found in SuyutI, 315 ( = tr. " See also W. Brinner, "Some Ayyubid and Mamluk Documents from Non-archival Sources," IOS 2 (1972): 121.
See also below. 20 The historical background c Umar b. al-cAdil Abu Bakr b. al-Kamil Muhammad had established himself in the same year that al-Nasir Yusuf took Damascus. He not only maintained his independence from Damascus, but with the support of the Bahriyya and other freebooters attempted several times to take both it and even Egypt. During al-Salih Ayyub's reign, several smaller Ayyubid principalities - Bosra, Baalbek and Banias - had been eliminated and integrated into the united sultanate of Egypt and Damascus.
See P. Jackson, "Crisis," 481-513, 495, cf. idem, "Bayju," EIr, 4:1, where it is suggested that this conversation is apocryphal. Rashld al-Dln, ed. c Allzadah, 3:58. This was, however, only a ruse to get the two officers to bring out their troops and dependents. They were subsequently all killed. 56 His letters to the premier Syrian prince, al-Nasir Ytisuf (see below), and his subsequent letter to Sultan Qutuz of Egypt give additional proof that his sights were set on these countries. 57 Why he waited a year and a half before setting off again on the offensive is unknown, but by the end of the summer of 657/1259 Hiilegii rode out from Azerbaijan.