By Brian M. Dale, Mark A. Brown, Richard C. Semelka
This 5th version of the main obtainable advent to MRI rules and functions from popular academics within the box offers an comprehensible but accomplished update.
- Accessible introductory advisor from popular lecturers within the field
- Provides a concise but thorough advent for MRI targeting basic physics, pulse sequences, and medical functions with no proposing complicated math
- Takes a pragmatic technique, together with updated protocols, and helps technical techniques with thorough motives and illustrations
- Highlights sections which are without delay proper to radiology board exams
- Presents new info at the newest experiment thoughts and purposes together with three Tesla entire physique scanners, issues of safety, and the nephrotoxic results of gadolinium-based distinction media
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Extra resources for MRI : basic principles and applications
A proton located at the edge of the FOV in the readout direction precesses at the Nyquist frequency ????NQ above or below the transmitter frequency ????TR . Changing the FOV of the image changes the spatial resolution (millimeters per pixel) but not the frequency resolution (hertz per pixel). 2)). 4) where Δ????RO is the total range of frequencies in the image. 6). 7). 7 For a given range (bandwidth) of frequencies that are measured in the signal, the desired FOV is determined by the readout gradient amplitude.
This inhomogeneity is transient during the measurement. The contributions of the imaging gradients may be eliminated as a source of dephasing through proper design of the measurement process, as described in Chapter 4. 2) where T2M is the dephasing time due to the main ﬁeld inhomogeneity and T2MS is the dephasing time due to the magnetic susceptibility differences. 3) where MXY max is the transverse magnetization MXY immediately following the excitation pulse. For most tissues or liquids, T2M is the major factor in determining T2∗ , while for tissue with signiﬁcant iron deposits or air-ﬁlled cavities, T2MS dominates T2∗ .
The rates and directions of precession for the protons do not change, only their relative phase. If time t elapses again, then the protons will regain some of their transverse coherence. This reformation of phase coherence induces another signal in the receiver coil, known as a spin echo. Sources of dephasing that do not change during the two time periods, the main ﬁeld inhomogeneity and magnetic susceptibility differences, are eliminated because the protons experience exactly the same interactions prior to and following the 180∘ pulse.