Download Neurotransmitter Interactions and Cognitive Function by Mieczyslaw Pokorski (eds.) PDF

By Mieczyslaw Pokorski (eds.)

A host of neurotransmitters and neuroactive elements underlies breathing legislation in overall healthiness and ailment. the center piece of investigations relating to model to hypoxia and sensorial conception has been the dopaminergic method. it really is now transparent advanced interplay between numerous neuroactive elements, instead of a unmarried one, kinds the foundation of respiration adjustments. The learn on neurotransmitter interactions presents the information of ways the mind services and a brand new point of realizing of mind-to-body connection, which opens up avenues for novel healing interventions.

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1993; Curtius et al. 1974). In vitro treatment of cells with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and in vivo administration of this neurotoxin to laboratory animals represent one of the most used experimental models of PD. Moreover, 6-OHDA content is increased in the brain and urine of patients with PD treated with L-DOPA (Andrew et al. 1993; Curtius et al. 1974) and a role for this neurotoxin in the pathogenesis of the disease has been suggested. We have recently reported that guanosine (GUO) protected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells when exposed to neurotoxins, including MPP+ and 6-OHDA (Giuliani et al.

30 P. Giuliani et al. Fig. 5 Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), guanosine (GUO), or the combined treatment on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (Panels A & B) and Akt (Panel C) in C6 glioma cells. Cultured cells were incubated for 15 min with 30 μM 6-OHDA, 300 μM (GUO) or 6-OHDA/GUO co-treatment and harvested for western blot analysis. The protein expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) or Akt (p-Akt), and β-actin were determined by using specific antibodies as described in Methods. To evaluate the time course of ERK1/2 activation induced by the co-treatment, cells were incubated for 5, 15, and 60 min with 30 μM 6-OHDA plus 300 μM GUO (Panel B).

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