By C. L. / Kungwar, A. C. / Tracey, A. S. / Diehl, P. Khetrapal
1. Lyotropic Liquid Crystals the category of compounds often called thermotropic liquid crystals has been commonly used in simple study and in the course of fresh years. The homes of those fabrics are such that on heating from the forged to the isotropic liquid country, section transitions ensue with the formation of 1 or extra intermediate anisotropic beverages. the original and occasionally startling homes of those liquid crystals are the houses of natural compounds. notwithstanding, there exists a moment category of drugs referred to as lyotropic liquid crystals which receive their anisotropic homes from the blending of 2 or extra elements. one of many parts is amphiphilic, containing a polar head workforce (generally ionic or zwitterionic) hooked up to at least one or extra long-chain hydrocarbons; the second one part is mostly water. Lyotropic liquid crystals happen abundantly in nature, quite in all residing platforms. as a result, a brilliant destiny turns out guaranteed for stories on such platforms. Even now, a few of the houses of those structures are poorly understood. it's the function of this assessment to consolidate the consequences got from nuclear magnetic resonance experiences of such structures and to supply a coherent photograph of the sector. essentially the most wide-spread instance of a lyotropic liquid crystal is cleaning soap in water. a standard cleaning soap is sodium dodecylsulphate the place an ionic workforce (sulphate) is hooked up to a hydrocarbon chain containing twelve carbons.
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Additional resources for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies in Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
00 Anisotropic Phases 39 as the label) has the distinct advantage over more traditional techniques of investigation (for example those using spin probes) in that the uncertainty regarding environmental perturbations caused by the probes is eliminated. It may be mentioned that the electron spin resonance and the nuclear magnetic resonance methods are complementary to each other in that the motions that may be revealed by ESR may be averaged on the NMR time scale. The question still remains as to whether the difference in the observed motion is a result of the perturbation due to the spin label or not.
1 KHz- .. ------- ......... _- Fig. 18. 23Na-NMR spectrum in a ternary lyotropic phase. [Reprinted from the 1. Am. Chern. Soc. 94, 4384 (1972) with permission of the copyright owner and the authors. Copyright by the American Chemical Society] as the corresponding component of the first layer. The outer transitions in this case were not observed. The situation has been considered analogous to the "hidden sodium" results in biological systems [335,456-458]. Similar studies in sodium linoleate-water , lecithin-sodium cholatewater  and oriented DNA  systems show that the 23Na signal is split into a relatively narrow central component and broad components symmetrically displaced about it.
DMR spectrum of a "macroscopically oriented" perdeutero potassium laurate-21 % H 2 0 phase at two different orientations of the optic axis in the magnetic field. (a) 4>=90°, (b) 4>=55°, where 4> is the angle between the normal to the glass plates and the external magnetic field. (One half of the symmetrical spectrum is shown except for the innermost doublet). [Reprinted from Chern. Phys. Letters 23, 345 (1973) with the permission of the copyright owner and the authors. Copyright by North-Holland Pub!.