By Katrina F. Hurley MD MHI FRCPC
Built to be a different learn consultant for clinical scholars getting ready for his or her OSCE examinations. It summarizes very important background and actual exam abilities and is a realistic assessment for all point of scientific scholars. The publication is geared up by means of significant physique structures, and is designed to facilitate either person and workforce examine. additionally it is samples OSCE situations and checklists.
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Additional info for OSCE and Clinical Skills Handbook
A higher inspired concentration of O2 should mean a higher PaO2. ■ With an inspired O2 concentration of 28%, a PaO2 of 21 kPa is expected, whereas with 100% O2, a PaO2 of 89 kPa would be expected (in theory). Therefore, if the patient has a PaO2 of 15 kPa but is receiving 60% oxygen, alarm bells should ring and further investigation into the perfusion status may be warranted. g. O2) may be required. Inspired O2 Expected PaO2 28% 21 kPa 40% 32 kPa 60% 51 kPa 100% 89 kPa 5 Base excess ■ Look at the base excess.
10 Other abnormalities ST-segment changes ■ Elevation: can be normal (‘high takeoff ’), acute MI, acute pericarditis (‘saddle’ shaped). ■ Depression: can be normal (upward sloping), digoxin (downward sloping), ischaemic (flat), posterior MI – changes in the posterior heart are seen as ‘reciprocal’ or ‘reflected’ changes (ST depression in leads V1–3). T-wave changes ■ Peaking: hyperkalaemia, acute MI. ■ Inversion: V1–3 can be inverted in children/Afro-Caribbean people (normal), post acute-phase of MI, myocardial ischaemia and left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).
G. syncope/dizziness, palpitations). There are three main types of recorders. g. 24 or 48 h. This is useful to detect diurnal heart rhythm changes but can be time-consuming to analyse. g. below 40 bpm and above 120 bpm) and are usually worn for 4–7 days. g. Memo or Reveal device): these are useful in patients who have infrequent symptoms. A small recording device is implanted in the subcutaneous tissue above the heart. g. syncope) is anticipated, by placing an activator over the device. The device stores a recording of the cardiac rhythm during and around the event, and can be left in place for a number of months.