By Julian M. Alston, Matthew A. Andersen, Jennifer S. James, Philip G. Pardey
This e-book records the evolving course of U.S. agriculture within the twentieth Century and the position of public R&D in that evolution. The paintings starts off with an in depth quantitative evaluate of the transferring styles of construction one of the states and through the years and of the general public associations and investments in agricultural R&D. Then, in response to newly built units of panel facts, a few of which span the full twentieth Century and extra, the authors current new econometric facts linking state-specific agricultural productiveness measures to federal and kingdom govt investments in agricultural learn and extension. the consequences exhibit that the time lags among R&D spending and its results on productiveness are longer than usually came across or assumed within the previous released paintings. additionally, the spillover results of R&D between states are vital, such that the nationwide internet merits from a state’s agricultural learn investments are a lot more than own-state internet merits. the most findings are constant throughout quite a lot of average version requisites. In sum, the advantages from earlier public investments in agricultural study were worthy repeatedly greater than the prices, an important percentage of the advantages accrue as spillovers, and the study lags are very lengthy. An speeded up funding in public agricultural R&D is warranted through the excessive returns to the state, and should be essential to revitalize U.S. agricultural productiveness development even if the advantages is probably not obvious for a few years.
Julian M. Alston is Professor within the division of Agricultural and source Economics and Director of the Robert Mondavi Institute middle for Wine Economics on the collage of California, Davis and affiliate Director for technology and expertise on the collage of California Agricultural matters Center
Matthew A. Andersen is Assistant Professor within the division of Agricultural and utilized Economics on the college of Wyoming
Jennifer S. James is affiliate Professor within the division of Agribusiness at California Polytechnic country collage, San Luis Obispo
Philip G. Pardey is Professor within the division of utilized Economics and Director of the overseas technological know-how and know-how perform and coverage (InSTePP) middle on the collage of Minnesota
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S. farm sales. Jones, El-Osta and Green (2006) also report that operators of these small farms derived almost all of their household income from 9 In contrast, Kislev and Peterson (1982, p. S. agriculture induced by changes in relative factor prices. 11 The USDA Economic Research Service has developed a typology for different categories of farms, as described in Hoppe (2001), including various kinds of non-commercial farms, and several different sizes of family farms, as well as “nonfamily farms,” which are farms organized as nonfamily corporations or cooperatives, as well as farms operated by hired managers.
Minnesota’s pattern was characteristic of the Midwestern states, tracking the national trend fairly closely. The Northeast region experienced the slowest growth in materials inputs and the fastest decline in the use of land, labor, and capital of all the regions in the United States (Figure 3-4, Panel b).
These differences, in conjunction with differences in the nature of the data being indexed, may have resulted in false findings of differences in the relative rates of growth of aggregate output and input between the two periods. S. AGRICULTURE Figure 2-3 15 Aggregate Agricultural Output and Input Quantity Trends, 1880–2004 Index (1880 = 100) 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 Output 600 400 200 0 1880 Input 1895 1910 1925 1940 1955 1970 1985 2000 Sources: Indexes of the quantity of output and input are from USDA ERS (1984) for 1880–1938; from USDA ERS (1986) for 1939–1948; and from InSTePP for 1949–2004 (for output), 1949–2002 (for input).