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By Thomas Brown (Auth.)

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For ex- other ample, GABA appears in abundance in the brain, and many scientists hypothesize that it acts as an inhibitory transmitter substance. Glutamic acid also is found in the brain and is probably an excitatory transmitter. Several other chemicals are suspect, and as we learn more about the biochemistry of the nervous system, more neurotransmitters will probably be positively identified. neurotransmitters the neurotransmitters 43 summary In this section we discussed those The Neurotransmitters neurotransmitters that appear to be most involved in behavior, although many chemicals are believed to act as neurotransmitters and still others are probably yet to be identified.

As the axon reaches its destination, it shows a great deal of branching, the synaptic At the end of each branch is a small swelling called the synaptic terminal. This is the structure that contains the chemical released in response to the neuron's action potentials. The terminal contains a large number of synaptic vesicles, which are the storehouses for the neurotransmitter substance. In addition to the vesicles, the terminal also contains mitochondria (to provide energy) and neurotubules (used in axoplasmic transport).

8 shows these six layers. The molecular layer (1) contains mostly fibers oriented in a horizontal dir rection, and the external granular layer (2) contains mostly small pyramidal cells. Layer 3, called the medium pyramidal layer, contains larger pyramidal cells. The internal granular layer (4) is a mixture of small pyramidal cells and granule cells, which have short branching axons and dendrites with many branches. Layer 5, the large pyramidal layer, contains (not surprisingly) large pyramidal cells.

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