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The stages or phenomena of the transport process have been defined for BWRs and PWRs following extensive laboratory investigations and field studies on operating reactors during the 1970s. Their prime aim is the forward prediction of activity formation and deposition, and isolation of key variables for future design purposes. It is clear that Co is the major cause of dose to operators of all WRs and that 58 in PWRs Co is important in the first few years of operation. While some of the models developed are semi-empirical, being based partly on hypothesis and observation, they are all ultimately concerned with the fate of activity produced by activation of corrosion products more specifically with respect to the cobalt isotopes.

01% rod failure in PHWRs delivered by KWU. It becomes apparent then that under maximum burnup conditions for current fuel generations, waterside corrosion has not been a substantial operational problem. However, delays in fuel reprocessing have motivated several programmes to demonstrate whether LWR fuel burnups can be extended, for example, to 35 000-40 000 MWD/te for BWR fuel and to 50 000-55 000 MWD/te for PWR fuel. d/t(U) Coolant pressure (bar) Coolant temperature (°C) 287 for the high burnup fuel.

G. sea water). g. Ringhals, Sweden) the Powdex-filters are complemented with deep-bed demineralizers. Under normal operating conditions only the Powdex-filters are in operation. e. the deep beds are operated. The use of magnetic filters for removing insoluble corrosion products remains of potential interest. This could be of importance in purifying high-temperature condensate which comes from the feedwater heaters before being mixed with the turbine condensate or the feedwater. 4 Monitoring Water Chemistry Sampling and control of primary coolant is performed on a regular basis to confirm that the water chemistry is within specified values.

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