By H. Amirahmadi
Reconstruction and neighborhood international relations within the Persian Gulf offers an in depth research of the social, political, and fiscal styles of interplay among Gulf states. The authors offer a attention of the function of the superpowers within the region's political discourse, and of faith as an agent for swap. Informative and obtainable, this examine offers a foundation for explaining the present difficulties within the area and develops a few provocative coverage prescriptions. individuals: M. E. Ahrari, Hooshang Amirahmadi, Anoushiravan Ehteshami, Nader Entessar, Nikki R. Keddie, George Linabury, Mohiaddin Mesbahi, Mohsen M. Milani, Augustus Richard Norton.
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Extra info for Reconstruction and Regional Diplomacy in the Persian Gulf
Southern Lebanon is not only the residential locus for about half a million Shi’i Muslims, but also the cultural heartland for Shi’ism in Lebanon. The southern coastal city of Tyre is the only Lebanese city in which the Shi’a comprise a clear majority of the population. In fact, though the south is defined administratively as one of Lebanon’s five provinces (it is called ‘al-Janub’, literally the South), its core is known to the Shi’a as Jabal ‘Amil, a region that earned distinction as a venerable centre of Shi’i scholarship, and a geographic compartment of Shi’ism that has played a central role in the history of the sect.
Increased government pressures, which were in part due to the rise in acts of individual violence, made the Shah more unpopular than ever and backfired during the Revolution. There was, before the Revolution, a rise in organized opposition: among students abroad, among guerrilla groups at home, and among the ulama, increasingly attracted to the message of Khomeini, whom many visited and others listened to on tape. The Iranian bazaar classes and working classes had their own grievances against increased government interference in their lives and livelihoods, and these were often expressed in strikes and protests in the years before the Revolution.
The two clerics were able to agree on a difficult foreign policy question, to accept humanitarian aid from the United States to aid victims of the earthquake in northern Iran in June 1990. However, Khamenei reorganized the Security Council to include well-known rivals of the president, such as Ahmad Khomeini, the late Ayatollah’s son. His assertion of influence over the media startled some in view of the fact that the Iranian broadcasting system is run by Rafsanjani’s brother, Muhammad Hashemi.