By James H. Sweet
Exploring the cultural lives of African slaves within the early colonial Portuguese global, with an emphasis at the greater than 1 million significant Africans who survived the adventure to Brazil, James candy lifts a curtain on their lives as Africans instead of as incipient Brazilians. Focusing first at the cultures of significant Africa from which the slaves came--Ndembu, Imbangala, Kongo, and others--Sweet identifies particular cultural rites and ideology that survived their transplantation to the African-Portuguese diaspora, arguing that they didn't crumple to rapid creolization within the New global yet remained noticeably African for your time. Slaves transferred many cultural practices from their homelands to Brazil, together with kinship buildings, divination rituals, judicial ordeals, ritual burials, nutritional regulations, and mystery societies. candy demonstrates that the constructions of a lot of those practices remained consistent in this early interval, even though the meanings of the rituals have been frequently reworked as slaves coped with their new surroundings and standing. non secular rituals specifically grew to become effective sorts of protest opposed to the establishment of slavery and its hardships. furthermore, candy examines how convinced African ideals and customs challenged and eventually motivated Brazilian Catholicism. Sweet's research sheds new mild on African tradition in Brazil's slave society whereas additionally enriching our figuring out of the complicated technique of creolization and cultural survival.
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Additional info for Recreating Africa: Culture, Kinship, and Religion in the African-Portuguese World, 1441-1770
There, she served for some time in the house of one Estevão Rodrigues, where she determined to marry again. Uncertain how to deal with her ﬁrst marriage, Lourença consulted a widowed friend named Clara Gata. ’’ In accordance with Lourença’s wishes, Clara organized her second wedding. First, she introduced Lourença to a suitable mate, 50-year-old Amaro de França Cordeiro, slave of Estevão Rodrigues. Next, Clara found four witnesses who were prepared to testify that they knew Lourença to be single and ﬁt to marry.
17 Though the rate of out-of-wedlock births was high in all communities in colonial Brazil, it was almost always far higher in the slave community. 20 We should stress that even though the majority of slave women gave birth out of Christian wedlock, this does not mean that they were not involved in stable relationships. In some cases, the identity of the father is listed in the baptismal record as ‘‘pai incognito,’’ but in other cases, both parents appeared for the baptism of their child. 4 percent of children born to African slave mothers were born out of Christian wedlock.
First, we will demonstrate that most slave families were built upon a wide range of male/female arrangements that were not sanctioned by the Catholic Church. We will then interrogate the meaning of Christian marriage in slave society, showing how the Western marriage ritual was variously rejected, adopted, and transformed by peoples of African descent. We will also look at patterns of household formation in a single Brazilian slave community, suggesting that even where a signiﬁcant creole population was emerging, African kinship patterns continued to predominate.