By Anoushiravan Ehteshami
The oil wealthy monarchies of the Arabian Peninsula are often brushed aside as having no democratic platforms in comparison to such a lot different areas of the area. certainly, the USA justified its motion in Iraq by way of proclaiming that democracy and freedom needs to be followed either in Iraq and in the course of the wider heart East, so as to counter the stipulations which breed overseas terrorism. it's been argued that the international locations of the Arabian Peninsula have to supply a approach of democratic illustration that totally takes into consideration their very own historical past and tradition. This increases many questions. Can their firmly verified culture of rule give you the foundation for the evolution of an Arab kind of constitutional monarchy? should still the West be looking to motivate nationwide indigenous evolution instead of operating to impose Western structures? What are the hazards of swap and what has been accomplished thus far? via articles via eminent teachers and govt officers, this ebook addresses those matters and examines the drivers, development and demanding situations for destiny switch during this vitally strategic quarter of the area.
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Indeed, the evidence from the Arab world (as for the wider Muslim world) is that ‘issues of democracy are well established in Arab political discourse’,85 even if they are by no means dominant. Of course regimes have used and played on such features of local culture to shore up their own rule. By contrast, other features of local culture may potentially work in favour of liberalization and democratization. The cross-cutting personal, kinship and other social networks, allowing a pattern of elite bargaining and competition to evolve avoiding crisis or real strife, and the extent to which this may be more easily extended to wider society in very small polities, is one such element.
347–374. qxd 9/15/07 5:47 PM Page 40 REFORM IN THE MIDDLE EAST OIL MONARCHIES 38 Guillermo O’Donnell and Philippe Schmitter, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986); and Diamond, Linz and Lipset, ‘Introduction’, pp. 27–31. ), Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Theoretical Perspectives (Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1995), pp. 3–28: at 10–14. 40 Dorenspleet, ‘Political Democracy’.
229–244. 61 See also Nonneman, Governance, Human Rights, and the Case for Political Adaptation in the Gulf, pp. 13–18. 62 Tetreault, Stories of Democracy. ), Saudi Arabia in the Balance, pp. 144–181. 5 trillion (Arabian Business, 16 October 2006), while the number of nonroyal millionaires in Saudi Arabia was estimated at over 80,000, and in the UAE at 69,000 (Arabian Business, 9 October 2006). 64 Lipset, ‘Some Social Requisites for Democracy’. 65 For instance Philippe Schmitter, ‘Introduction’; Vanhanen and Kimber, ‘Predicting and Explaining Democratization in Eastern Europe’; Nonneman, ‘Patterns of Political Liberalization’.