Download Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic by Michael Axworthy PDF

By Michael Axworthy

A massive new and definitive paintings through the writer of [i]Iran: Empire of the Mind[/i\

Ayatollah Khomeini's go back to Tehran in February 1979 was once a key second in post-War overseas politics. a wide, well-populated and prosperous country all at once dedicated itself to a relatively new direction: a revolution according to the supremacy of Islam and contempt for either superpowers.

For over 30 years the Islamic Republic has resisted common condemnation, sanctions, and sustained assaults by way of Iraq in an eight-year conflict. Many policy-makers this present day percentage a weary want that Iran may by some means simply disappear as an issue. yet with Iran's carrying on with dedication to a nuclear programme and its attractiveness as a trouble-maker in Afghanistan, Lebanon and somewhere else, this is often not likely any time quickly. The gradual dying of the 2009 'Green Revolution' indicates that progressive Iran's associations are nonetheless formidable.

About the Author:
Michael Axworthy's Iran: Empire of the brain proven him as one of many world's valuable specialists in this awesome nation and in his new ebook, innovative Iran, he has written the definitive historical past of this topic, one that takes complete account of Iran's particular heritage and is smart of occasions usually misunderstood by way of outsiders.

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They were arbitrators in family or business or other legal disputes and acted as judges in criminal cases. They served as notaries for official documents. Often they were the only authority figures in smaller towns or villages and acted effectively as governors, in association with elders or village headmen. In the larger towns and cities the ulema tended to have specially close connections with the merchants and craftsmen of the bazaars, who 21 R e vo l uti o na ry I r a n often demonstrated their piety by giving money for religious purposes – for example to repair the roof of a mosque or to help set up a religious school (madreseh).

They were able to communicate and coordinate action with other ulema, and to disseminate propaganda, often using the most up-to-date communications technology (in 1892, the telegraph system; in 1978, cassette-tapes, telephone and Xerox copiers). Their religious authority gave them a unique advantage by comparison with other potential leaders of mass movements; it meant independence and a degree of immunity from repression, as a class. Secular rulers found it difficult, and often counterproductive, to act even against individual mullahs.

Rahimi’s captors allowed Western journalists to put questions to him on the evening of 11 February. He was unrepentant, confirmed his continuing loyalty to the Shah and said it had been necessary to send in forces to restore order. ’ General Rahimi smiled slightly, looked up and lifted his hands a little, as though all these questions were an irrelevance. 2 The interpretation of all three of these revolutions will always be controversial, but many people still broadly think of the first two in terms set out by Karl Marx in the nineteenth century.

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