By Bonnie Costello
Simply because the glance of the yankee panorama has replaced because the 19th century, so has our proposal of panorama. right here Bonnie Costello reads six twentieth-century American poets who've mirrored and formed this variation and within the approach renovated panorama by means of drawing new pictures from the flora and fauna and developing new kinds for imagining the earth and our relation to it.
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Extra resources for Shifting Ground: Reinventing Landscape in Modern American Poetry
The “old incurable untimeliness” may provide a pretext for the poet’s effort of connection with the moth, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 4 6 7 9 0 4 6 7 9 0 4 6 7 9 0 4 6 7 9 0 28 L S H I F T I N G G R O U N D but the “untimeliness” of poetic representation itself, the temporality of rhetoric behind this rhetoric of temporality, prevents it. If what he pities in the moth is “something human,” it relegates the moth to an allegorical status.
Yet a transaction has occurred—“two had seen two whichever side you spoke from” (and the chiastic poem speaks from both). ” Now the split boulder of the Cartesian world can be made whole again, beyond confusion. Our love for the earth is validated in a universal principle. But that principle may be death. As with so many closing moments in Frost, the risk of extravagant sentiment is hedged here by linguistic ambiguities. A great wave from it going over them, As if the earth in one unlooked-for favor Had made them certain earth returned their love.
Although not a landscape poem, it suggests a set of problems that Frost’s landscapes will address. Again, apostrophe evokes an unsustainable lyric aspiration to escape isolation and temporal limits. As Jonathan Culler has shown in The Pursuit of Signs, narrative is apos- Frost’s Crossings L 27 trophe’s repressed other, the sequential structure that ecstasy seeks to transcend but to which it inevitably succumbs. No trope has an essence— apostrophe or chiasmus—but Culler’s theory is borne out at least in the practice of many post-Romantic poems, including Frost’s early ones.