By Gunnar Trumbull
Among 1998 and 2002, France applied an array of rules designed to advertise the commercialization of latest economic climate applied sciences. those efforts have became French innovation coverage on its head. Efforts to advertise the hot financial system have proved politically and socially contentious. Many French policymakers and public intellectuals worry that regulatory liberalization may perhaps threaten or undermine kingdom sovereignty. Trumbull addresses those matters during this textual content, describing France's new know-how coverage as either boldly new and familiarly French. He commends the French nation for carrying on with to play a valuable function in shaping France's new economic climate, and argues that the reforms truly strengthen the position and autonomy of the French country. Acknowledging that the government's options haven't been dependent, Trumbull asserts that they still supply a manageable lodging of French values to the necessities of competitiveness within the new financial system sectors.
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Extra info for Silicon and the State: French Innovation Policy in the Internet Age
2 In this approach, the risks of development were borne in common, and the fruits of success were shared universally. It created a low-risk environment that promoted research and development projects that were large and cuttingedge, but also slow. France’s innovation landscape began to change in the 1990s. 3 But France had also begun to encourage private equity investment in order to promote the commercialization of new technologies. S. venture capital model, which had driven dramatic successes in computers and software.
A report commissioned by the prime minister, released in January 2000, found that 80 percent of newly created companies in France had no employees. 56 The government did undertake some small measures to reduce the number of reports that had to be filled out, especially for new start-ups. In June 1999, Lionel Jospin put in place the Commission for Administrative Simplification, or COSA (Commission pour les simplifications administratives). The group had the goal of reducing the administrative burden faced by French companies.
This 26 the state and the entrepreneur Table 2-1. Tax Rates for Stock-Option Plans in France Percent Years from grant date to sale Plan type Less than 1 million francs More than 1 million francs BSPCEb Less than four years Four to six years More than six years 54a 54a 40 40 50 26 26 40 26 a. Options held for less than four years are taxed as income, typically at the top marginal rate of 54 percent. b. Bons de souscription de parts de créateurs d’entreprise, available to firms less than fifteen years old.