By Markus Schneider
Database study within the final decade has more and more concerned with supplying aid for non-standard purposes. One very important area is illustration and processing of spatial info, wanted, e.g., in geographical info structures. Spatial information forms supply a primary abstraction for modeling the constitution of geometric entities, their relationships, homes and operations. This monograph is an intensive survey of this box and introduces a brand new, normal, refined framework for the formal definition and strong implementation of spatial information types.
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Extra info for Spatial Data Types for Database Systems: Finite Resolution Geometry for Geographic Information Systems
The nodes of a graph are interpreted as the end points of a line segment, and the edges between nodes as line segments between end points. Thus, for instance, the Nile delta in Egypt can be modelled as a single object in the form of a graph. For polygons we have the special case of polygons with holes [BDQV90, CAR80, ECF94, Gti91, KBS91a, KBS9 lb, KVW89, 0090, OSM89, SV91, WB93]. A polygon with holes is a simple polygon where one or more simple polygons are cut out (Figure 2-5(d)). Another modelling approach especially known from geography represents a polygon with holes as a single loop by introducing an additional segment for each hole to join a point on the outer boundary to a point on a hole (Figure 2-5(g)).
Concerning the structure of spatial objects, simple (primitive) and extended structures can be distinguished. Most approaches model spatial objects as simple objects, for instance [Ab89, BDQV90, Bu79, CAR80, Eg89b, Gti88a, Gti88b, 0o90, OSM89, RFS88, RNLE85, SH91]. In the sequel, these approaches are briefly summarized. Let us assume that a type for a point object is called POINT, a type f6r a line object LINE, and a type for a polygon object POLYGON. Then the POINT type is the simplest type. Each object represents apoint in the (Euclidean) plane and is described by a pair (x, y) of coordinates in the form of real numbers.
The modelling approach presented here requires that the user has an understanding of implementation details concerning spatial data which should be better hidden at the user's level. Without going into detail, it is obvious that our design criteria are not fulfilled. The numerous deficiencies of the approach of modelling spatial data as relations have led to the assessment that this approach is unsuitable to manage spatial data in a conceptually clean and efficient manner and that a high-level view of spatial objects is essential.