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Practices that are now considered voluntary but desirable may become mandatory, particularly emissions reduction, lower energy consumption, and recycling. Economic imperatives will help other trends, such as improved mineral recovery and recycling due to the depletion of reserves, and increased automation and efficiency. 2 Mining industry trends, 2009–19 Factors in 2009 Drivers Features in 2019 Impact Increased recovery Economic, environmental Depletion of resources; increased technological capability for recovering minerals Intensification of environmental factor Processing plants will be able to achieve far greater recovery of minerals from ore, leading to less waste of valuable commodities Recycling Economic, environmental, social Depletion of resources; increased technological capability for recycling materials; lower burden on landfills and communities Intensification of environmental factor; increased social pressure; legislation Depletion of resources will become less of a concern as mineral products are recycled and reused Greater automation and efficiency Economic, environmental Improved accuracy and quality of product; saving time and money; often reduction of energy use and emissions Improvement of process control technologies; economic pressure to become more and more automated and efficient Automation will become more of a norm; it may lead to fewer lower-level jobs in processing plants Wear protection Economic Desire to get as much use out of expensive equipment as possible Improved techniques for protecting against wear and tear Equipment will last longer and need fewer replacement parts Reduction of energy use Economic, environmental Legislation and regulations; economic advantage of saving energy; environmental considerations Stricter legislation and regulations on energy use; extra economic incentives Legislation and economic factors will exert very strong pressures for reduced energy use across the industry Emissions reduction Environmental, social Legislation and regulations; environmental concerns Stricter legislation and regulations on emissions; increased local and global pressure to reduce emissions Legislation and societal pressures will lead people to develop ways to reduce emissions Source: Pira International Ltd Page 27 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2009 Emerging trends 4 This chapter looks at synergies when processing plants work together and the reevaluation of waste rock as a valuable commodity instead of a burden.

Pdf M. E. , ‘Biotechnology in Minerals Processing: Technological Breakthroughs Creating Value’, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 83, September 2006, pp 3–9 Robert D. Crangle Jr, ‘Gypsum Mineral Commodity Summary 2009’. pdf Les Edwards, Nolan Richards and Halvor Kvande, ‘Inert Anodes and Other New Al Technologies – Benefits, Challenges, and Impact on Present Technology’, JOM, Vol. 53, no. pdf European IPPC Bureau, ‘Draft Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Non-ferrous Metal Industries’, July 2009, p 252.

Subsidies are a powerful source of economic pressure and may partly account for the trend towards environmentally beneficial technologies in developed countries, the proliferation of activity in developing countries, and the trend towards greater transparency in reporting company activities. Taxes and tariffs A mineral may be mined in one country then sent to another for processing. But shipping ore is seldom economically feasible if the mining operation is in a country with high export taxes or the processing operation is in a country with high import taxes.

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