By Naomi Joy Weinberger
Clash and intervention within the center East will not be unusual occurrences. but whilst civil strife erupted in Lebanon in 1975, the occasions that have been strange certainly. not like so much styles of intervention, Syria displayed awesome tactical flexibility through first intervening on behalf of the rebels, its conventional allies, then moving its allegiance mid-war to the Lebanese incumbents. additionally, while such a lot intervention eventualities finish with a means of decommitment, Syria finally occupied components of Lebanon to turn into a permanent army entity there. Delving into fundamental Syrian and Lebanese resources, Weinberger unravels the historical past, competing factions, faith, politics, and tradition of the quarter and offers an interesting and complicated portrait of intervention by means of a local energy.
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Extra info for Syrian Intervention in Lebanon
38 THE SYRIAN STAKE IN LEBANON Civil Strife Four localized uprisings in the early nineteenth century each reflected grievances against the feudal system. Over time, however, sectarian tensions played an increasingly important contributory role. The first uprising, in 1820, was confined exclusively to peasants, angered by the high taxes imposed by the Shihabi hakim, Bashir II. The peasants were backed by a Maronite bishop, who joined them in drafting a "covenant" repudiating payment of more than the traditional basic tax.
Some were most concerned with the intensity of the comDiplomacy, by Alexander George et al. (Boston: Little Brown, 1971), pp. 218220. 21 Keohane, "Theory of World Politics," pp. 508, 522-525, 529. Miscalculations by Intervene™ 23 mitment and its implications for the local balance of power. Others were more worried about the shift in direction of Syria's alignments in the midst of the Lebanese war, because of power-political or normative repercussions. As argued above, although the Soviet Union had the potential to impose constraints on Syrian behavior (or at least to raise the costs of Syrian divergence from its preferences), it lacked serious motivation to do so.
Still other significant Shi'i Muslim, Greek Orthodox, and Greek Catholic communities resided in the Mountain and its immediate environs. 8 The social structure of the Mountain evolved over time from a "feudal" order to a "confessional" order. In the earlier phase, horizontal (socioeconomic) cleavages prevailed, reflecting distinctions between the dominant feudal lords and their tenants. Vertical (sectarian or confessional) cleavages only gradually became politicized, emerging as the most salient social divisions in Mount Lebanon by the mid-nineteenth century.