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By Erik Baark, Andrew Jamison

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It has been argued that the rapid diffusion of technologies in the Japanese society in the period of the Meiji Restoration was made possible partly through the homogenous social structure (although hierarchies certainly existed) and the widespread literacy in the Japanese society at the Erik Baark and Andrew Jamison 21 time. Differences in political economy and attitudes have also been among the factors which provided the background for crucial differences in the performance of Indian and Chinese actors' behaviour in the post-war period.

As Leo Marx has shown us in his book, The Machine in the Garden (1964), the American experience was a more assimilating one than the European. The machine was incorporated into a dominant pastoral ideal that was, in some sense, more all-encompassing than similar ideals Erik Baark and Andrew Jamison 29 in Europe. Where Morris wanted the machine to be adapted to its environment - and thus made more congenial to a small community - Bellamy saw the machine developing largely on its own terms, creating a managed city and a managed garden.

34 The Technology and Culture Problematique 11. Freeman, The Economics of Industrial Innovation (1983) p. 214. 12. Nathan Rosenberg, Perspectives on Technology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976) pp. 15~3. 13. The idea of a cultural context draws on the conceptualisation developed in Andrew Jamison, National Components of Scientific Knowledge (Lund: Research Policy Institute, 1982), where an attempt is made to compare systematically the cultural conditions behind scientific and technical development in Sweden and Denmark.

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