By Zvi Rosenberg, Erez Dekel
This monograph covers all very important problems with terminal ballistics in a finished means combining experimental info, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. It makes use of a distinct method of numerical simulations as sensitivity degree for the main actual parameters.
In the 1st bankruptcy, the publication comprises worthwhile information about the experimental gear that are used for ballistic exams. the second one bankruptcy covers crucial positive aspects of the codes that are utilized in contemporary years world wide, the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes, meshing innovations and so forth. The 3rd bankruptcy, dedicated to the penetration mechanics of inflexible rods, brings the replace of modeling during this box. The fourth bankruptcy bargains with plate perforation and the 5th bankruptcy bargains with the penetration of formed cost jets and eroding lengthy rods. The final bankruptcy comprises a number of options for the disruption and defeating of the most threats in armor layout.
Throughout the booklet the authors display some great benefits of the simulation method in knowing the root physics at the back of the investigated phenomena.
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Extra info for Terminal ballistics
The same ideas are applied to the differentiation with respect with time. Values of the parameters at a certain time (t) are calculated by their values at an earlier time (t À Dt) and their corresponding time derivatives. With the finite element technique the actual differential equations are solved in small interconnected sub-regions (elements). Nodes are assigned to elements and an interpolation function is used to represent the variation of the variable over the element. Anderson (1987) discusses the four properties which have to be carefully considered in order to optimize these calculations, namely: consistency, accuracy, stability and efficiency.
Subsequent developments showed that even under these simple conditions the spall process is more complicated, and that its time dependence should be taken into account, as was noted by Tuler and Butcher (1968). Many models were developed in order to account for this type of failure and the article of Curran (1982) describes those which are based on the nucleation of defects and their growth (the so called NAG models). The time dependence of the spall process leads to scaling effects which were the focus of an intense research by Russian researchers, as summarized by Ogorodnikov et al.
3c) The first expression, with the constant deceleration, was suggested (independently) by the great mathematician Leonard Euler (1745) and the gun engineer Benjamin Robins (1742). The second and third equations are attributed to Poncelet (1835) and Resal (1895), respectively. 4c) Clearly, the various expressions for a(V) result in different relations for the final penetration depth of a rigid penetrator. There are several ways by which the actual dependence of a(V), for a given projectile/target pair, can be determined.