By Michael Sela
The Antigens, quantity III is a entire treatise overlaying all features of antigens, together with their chemistry and biology in addition to their immunologic function and expression. subject matters coated variety from microbial polysaccharides and lymphocytic receptors for antigens to antigenic determinants and antibody-combining websites. Allergens and the genetics of hypersensitive reaction also are explored.
Comprised of 7 chapters, this quantity starts off with a evaluate of microbial polysaccharides as antigens, through a dialogue on antigenic determinants and their particular response with antibody-combining websites. The reader is then brought to the response of antigens with their particular receptors on lymphocytes. the subsequent 4 chapters are fascinated with a number of different types of extra advanced antigens which, typically, have not begun to be characterised thoroughly at a molecular point: allergens, histocompatibility antigens, antigens of Mycoplasmatales and chlamydiae, and animal viruses. The ebook concludes with an research of virus infections and the immune responses they elicit.
This monograph can be of curiosity to practitioners and researchers in immunology, experimental and medical drugs, biochemistry, and different disciplines.
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Extra resources for The Antigens. Volume III
There are only 12 O groups (12 different O antigens of which most are homopolysaccharides; see Table IV), but more than 80 different capsular polysaccharides. For this reason Klebsiella are serologically typed through their capsular polysaccharide antigens. In spite of this sérologie variability, there are, nevertheless, only few sugar constituents found in the group of these polysaccharides, as shown in Table XI. Recently, pyruvate was found to be a substituent in some Klebsiella polysaccharides (Gormus and Wheat, 1971).
1971). , 1973) led to the formula given in Fig. 7. 24 Klaus Jann and Otto Westphal As a result of these many structural investigations on lipopolysaccharides of S forms, R forms, and on lipid A, the complete formula of several enterobacterial LPS could be elaborated. As an example, the structure of the LPS of Salmonella typhimurium is given in Fig. 8. TABLE VII The Constituents of Lipid A Constituent Molar ratio Glucosamine Phosphate Amide-bound fatty acids D-e-Hydroxymyristic acid Ester-bound fatty acids Laurie acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid D-ß-Hydroxymyristic acid 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 KDO CH3 FA = 0\ ^C-(CH 2 ) 1 0 -CH 3 °k FA = ^ C - ( C H 2 ) 1 4 — CH3 FA = ^C—CH2— CH— (CH2)10— CH3 x CL ^C-(CH2)12-CH: Fig.
5. It should be mentioned that E. coli K12 and E. coli C have a complete core (Schmidt, 1973). E. coli K12 represents a type of its own and E. coli C seems to be identical with E. coli core type 1. R-LPS with an incomplete core occur in rfa mutants. Through the action of mutagens on a given wild-type (S) strain, a number of R(rfa) mutants can be obtained which have more or less incomplete R-LPS. They can be characterized by bacteriophages and by their sensitivity to various dyes and antibiotics (Schlecht and Westphal, 1970).