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By Rustam Shukurov

In The Byzantine Turks, 1204 1461 Rustam Shukurov deals an account of the Turkic minority in overdue Byzantium together with the Nicaean, Palaiologan, and Grand Komnenian empires. The demography of the Byzantine Turks and the felony and cultural facets in their front into Greek society are mentioned intimately. Greek and Turkish bilingualism of Byzantine Turks and Tourkophonia between Greeks have been particular beneficial properties of Byzantine society of the time. Basing his arguments upon linguistic, social, and cultural proof present in a variety of Greek, Latin, and Oriental assets, Rustam Shukurov convincingly demonstrates how Oriental impacts on Byzantine existence resulted in an important differences in Byzantine mentality, tradition, and political lifestyles. The learn is supplemented with an etymological lexicon of Oriental names and phrases in Byzantine Greek."

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According to the descriptive models of Aristotle’s Topics, “all the attributes which do not belong to the genus do not belong to the species either; whereas all those that are wanting to the species are not of necessity wanting to the genus. ”17 Species are united into genera only due to some of their properties and, therefore, the genus can combine dissimilar species, which have, however, some common essential features (see Fig. 1). 15 Aristot. Met. 999a ff. 16 Aristot. 5; Aristot. Categ. Part 3.

Constable, 5 vols (Washington, DC, 2000), 5:1243. 91 Blemmydes, Conspectus, pp. 33–40. 15–16. 93 Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica, 2:270. 94 Lampros, Spyridon. “Ο μαρκιανός κώδιξ του Κρητός Γεωργίου Κλόντζα,” Νέος Eλληνομνήμων 12 (1915), p. 44. 95 Ditten, “Der Russland-Exkurs,” pp. 16–19 passim. The Byzantine Classification of the Turks 35 Niketas Choniates, on several occasions, used Ταυροσκύθαι as an alternative term for the Cumans. 98 In addition to traditional “scientific” Μασσαγέται, Σαυρομάται, and Ταυροσκύθαι, the Byzantines used as species categories new “barbarian” ethnic terminology, some of which was adopted from civilized neighbors of the Byzantines (both eastern Muslims and western Christians) or gleaned from their own communication practices with new tribes.

343–50. ). : Miquel, André. La géographie humaine du monde musulman jusqu’au milieu du 11e siècle, 2: Géographie arabe et représentation du monde: la terre et l’étranger (Paris, 1975), pp. 34–50. 73 Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica, 2:279–83. 74 Ptolemy. 10, ed. Karl Müller (Paris, 1883). 75 Agathias. Agathiae Myrinaei historiarum libri quinque, ed. Rudolf Keydell (Berlin, 1967), p. ” 76 Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica, 2:231–37. 77 In the Black Sea, Göktürks in the sixth century were first referred to by the Byzantines as Τοῦρκοι.

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