By Dave Osborne
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Additional info for The coal handbook: Towards cleaner production
Despite the decreased share of iron ore-based steelmaking, the share of the coal-based blast furnace process will still remain about 70%. Based on this technological framework, CO2 emission is predicted to drop by about 39%. It can be seen that even in the medium to long term, two fundamental routes will be dominant for steelmaking: an integrated steel plant and a ‘mini-mill’ EAF-based plant. In the integrated steel plant, coal and coke are essential and directly used for reducing iron ore in a blast furnace by coke.
The plant reportedly achieved the world’s highest level of power generation efficiency. The Nakoso plant had completed more than 16 000 h of operation, before being devastated after the earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011. After the initial shock, Nakoso staff were quickly mobilized to rebuild the plant. In view of the severe electricity shortage, there was a particular focus on returning to full operation in time for the summer peak where every kilowatt would be needed to maintain stable supply.
There are two main groups of direct liquefaction processes, namely singlestage and two-stage. These are described in some detail in a later chapter, but the single-stage process provides distillates through a primary reactor, and the two-stage, the more common, provides distillates through two reactors. The two-stage processes have often been developments from the single-stage in order to improve the product recovery and range. For example, the H-Coal process was developed into the Catalytic 2-Stage process and is the technology chosen for Shenhua’s planned HTI–CTL plant in Inner Mongolia described later.