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By Niyazi Berkes

First released in 1964, this can be the most vital books written on smooth Turkey. lengthy unavailable within the English language, this version brings new existence to the influential principles and research of Niyazi Berkes. interpreting Turkey's transformation towards an earthly nation, it strains the complicated courting among technical and fiscal alterations, in addition to the political and non secular.

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He was asked to undertake the training in the European manner of the bombardier (l:nmtbaract) corps. Actual measures to introduce something new into the military training date from the work of De Bonneval. Some young French officers served under him; later he was joined by the Irishman Macartl1y, the Frenchman Mornai, and the Scotsman Ramsay. 40 His report to the Turkish ruler described the recruitment, organization, and tactics of the French and German military forces and advised the organization and use of smaller units and new training and discipline.

48 The interest in tr;nslating European works into Turkish continued. Bernhardus V arenius' Geographia Generalis was translated from German into Turkish in I 7so by Osman bin Abdul-Mannan. 49 Tllis was the first book on modern geography translated directly . from a European work into Turkish. The first book on modern medicine was translated mto Turlash from Hermann Boerhaave's Aphorismi in I7JI. 50 Through this translation, Harvev's ideas concerning the circulation of blood were introduced i~to Turkish medical literature for the first time.

Norman Daniel, Islam and the West (Edinburgh, 1960), pp. 288-94· 2 l 53 Quoted by Hamit and Muhsin, Tiirkiye Tarihi (Istanbul, 1930), p. 313· The Limitations of tbe Reformists REACTION AGAINST INNOVATION The world is in decay, Do not tbink it will rigbt with us; Base Fate bas given tbe state over to tbe mean. Now the men of rank about us are all cowards N otbing re'mains for us but immortal compassion. 54 Ismail Astm, the $eyhul-Islam, took up the metre and rhyme to find hope in religion: Truly the worldly state is grasped by the mean, Order 110 more comes to band by bonest tbinking; Even tbe leaves and rain are the cowards' loot May the $eriat's wate1·s right tbe garden of tbe state!

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