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By Maurice Godelier

When we predict of giving presents, we predict of replacing items that hold with them financial or symbolic price. yet is each necessary factor a very likely exchangeable merchandise, whose worth should be transferred? In The Enigma of the Gift, the celebrated French anthropologist Maurice Godelier reassesses the importance of presents in social lifestyles via targeting sacred gadgets, that are by no means exchanged regardless of the price they possess.

Beginning with an research of the seminal paintings of Marcel Mauss and Claude Lévi-Strass, and drawing on his personal fieldwork in Melanesia, Godelier argues that conventional theories are improper simply because they give thought to merely exchangeable presents. by means of explaining gift-giving by way of sacred gadgets and the authoritative conferral of strength linked to them, Godelier demanding situations either fresh and standard theories of gift-giving, provocatively clean a conventional debate.

Elegantly translated via Nora Scott, The Enigma of the Gift is immediately an enormous theoretical contribution and a necessary advisor to the background of the idea of the gift.

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Philip went on to conquer Greece and his son, Alexander the Great, the Persian Empire. Upon Alexander’s death, his generals divided his empire. Macedonia, including Thrace and Greece, became a territory embroiled in constant struggle, wars, and political disputes just as the region has been since the beginning of recorded history and remains to this day. Because of the aid that the Macedonian king Philip V gave to Hannibal of Carthage in his wars against Rome (third century BCE), the latter conquered the region (215–148 BCE), dividing it into a group of Roman provinces—Macedonia, Thracia, and Moesia.

He was therefore personally attuned to Greek culture and as ruler of Bulgaria continued his father’s accomplishments, establishing the country as a significant power in European politics. Indeed, it is entirely justified to call the state the First Bulgarian Empire. Simeon styled himself tsar or emperor. He moved the capital away from Pliska with its pagan influences to the garrison city of Preslav, which had a literary school well known for its Christian scholars. The Bulgarian tsar built the new capital into a magnificent city fit for an empire.

In the 1180s, a new series of tax riots broke out over levies imposed to finance the marriage of Isaac II of the new Byzantine Angelid dynasty to a Hungarian princess. Two noblemen, the brothers Ivan Asen and Todor, requested that Isaac appoint them autonomous governors of all the Bulgarian lands. The brothers’ origins and ethnicity are obscure. Bulgarians maintain that they were descendents of the tsars of the First Empire and therefore had the right to rule as tsars themselves. However, others have raised doubts, especially the Romanians, who claim they were Vlachs and hence related to them.

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