Download The Hidden Origins of Islam: New Research into Its Early by Karl-Heinz Ohlig, Gerd-R Puin PDF

By Karl-Heinz Ohlig, Gerd-R Puin

Regardless of Muhammad's exalted position in Islam, even this day there's nonetheless surpisingly little really identified approximately this shadowy determine and the origins of the Qur'an due to an marvelous loss of verifiable biographical fabric. additionally, many of the present biographical traditions that may be used to confirm the lifetime of Muhammad date to just about centuries after his dying, a time while a strong, expansive, and idealized empire had develop into synonymous together with his identify and imaginative and prescient - therefore leading to an exaggerated and sometimes man made characterization of the prophetic determine coupled with many questionable interpretations of the holy e-book of Islam.

On the foundation of datable and localizable artifacts from the 7th and 8th centuries of the Christian period, some of the old advancements, misconceptions, and fallacies of Islam can now be obvious in a special gentle. Excavated cash that predate Islam and the outdated inscription within the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem make the most of symbols utilized in a documented Syrian Arabic theology - a theology with Christian roots.

Interpreting conventional contexts of historic proof and rereading passages of the Qur'an, the researchers during this thought-provoking quantity unveil a shocking - and hugely unconventional - photograph of the very foundations of Islamic spiritual background.

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Sample text

The religio-political daʿwa of the Ismāʿīliyya had finally led to the establishment of a state or dawla headed by the Ismaili imam. In line with their universal claims, the Fatimid imamcaliphs did not abandon their daʿwa activities on assuming power. They particularly concerned themselves with the affairs of the Ismaili daʿwa after transferring the seat of their state to Egypt. The daʿwa achieved particular success outside the domains of the Fatimid state, and, as a result, Ismailism outlived the downfall of the Fatimid dynasty and caliphate in 576/1171, also surviving the challenges posed by the Sunni revival of the 5th-6th/11th-12th centuries.

John of Joinville (d. 1317), the king’s biographer and secretary has left a valuable account of these dealings, including a curious disputation between an Arabic-speaking friar and the chief dāʿī of the Syrian Nizārīs. Subsequently, the Nizārīs collaborated with the Mamlūks and other Muslim rulers in defeating the Mongols in Syria. Baybars, the victorious Mamlūk sultan, now resorted to various measures for bringing about the submission of the Nizārī strongholds in Syria. Kahf was the last Nizārī outpost there to fall in 671/1273.

The only one of the Syrian dāʿīs to act somewhat independently of Alamūt, Sinān evidently taught his own version of the doctrine of qiyāma. He led the Syrian Nizārīs for almost three decades to the peak of their power and fame until his death in 589/1193. Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad’s son and successor, Jalāl al-Dīn Ḥasan (r. 607–618/1210– 1221), was concerned largely with redressing the isolation of the Nizārīs from the larger world of Sunni Islam. Consequently, he publicly repudiated the doctrine of qiyāma and ordered his followers to observe the sharīʿa in its Sunni form, inviting Sunni jurists to instruct his people.

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