By Leslie P. Peirce
The extraordinary political energy of the Ottoman imperial harem within the 16th and 17th centuries is greatly seen as illegitimate and corrupting. This booklet examines the resources of royal women's energy and assesses the reactions of contemporaries, which ranged from dependable devotion to armed competition. by way of studying political motion within the context of loved ones networks, Leslie Peirce demonstrates that lady energy used to be a logical, certainly an meant, outcome of political constructions. Royal ladies have been custodians of sovereign strength, education their sons in its use and workout it without delay as regents while invaluable. moreover, they performed relevant roles within the public tradition of sovereignty--royal ceremonial, enormous construction, and patronage of creative construction. The Imperial Harem argues that the workout of political strength used to be tied to definitions of sexuality. in the dynasty, the hierarchy of girl strength, just like the hierarchy of male strength, mirrored the wider society's regulate for social keep watch over of the sexually active.
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Additional resources for The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire (Studies in Middle Eastern History)
Having family ties, not just a simple loyalty to the sultan, Janissaries looked for more money, especially in the age of inflation. They could get pay increases by threats of revolt. Many also began to lead a double life, moonlighting at jobs in the city. When Janissary units were stationed in provincial cities to keep order, they continued in their new evil ways and often became part of an unruly local ruling clique, along with notables among the ulema and the esnafs. The breakdown of discipline in the Janissary corps reflected a breakdown in the whole slave-official system.
The Greeks, by contrast, launched a major offensive from izmir in 1920 that was checked only in 1921 by Mustafa Kemal's colleague ismet inonii at the battle of inonii and again by Mustafa Kemal himself when the Greeks were some fifty miles from Ankara. Then the tide turned, and in 1922 a Turkish offensive pushed the Greeks out of Anatolia. At that point the British remained as the sole effective opponents of the Turks, but they were now willing to negotiate. A new armistice in October 1922 led to a new peace conference, which met at Lausanne, Switzerland, the next month.
The superficial westernisms, though they affected court tastes and some of the architecture of the period, did not penetrate deeply. In fact, popular antagonism was aroused against Frankish manners at a time when there were economic hardship and new rural migration from villages to istanbul. When Ahmed III's military weakness was revealed in a losing campaign on the Iranian frontier in 1730, a revolt in istanbul led by Patrona Halil, a junk dealer and Janissary associate, expressed the popular indignation.