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By Sidney Pollard

The overseas economic system seeing that 1945, analyzes financial coverage, surroundings risks brought on by financial switch, fluctuations in criteria of dwelling world-wide; reactions of different international locations to the plight of the 3rd international international locations; and the impression of global struggle II at the worldwide economic system over the last part century.

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Much of this activity had little or nothing to do with the real economic or industrial life of the countries concerned, yet it was at times gravely affecting their prosperity. As for the source of funds, apart from the United States, much of them originated in the early stages in Switzerland, but later also in Germany and then in other surplus economies, including Japan. 4 per cent in Deutschmark, the remainder in other currencies. Who borrowed these sums? In the 1970s and 1980s, much of the lending was destined for Third World countries, hard hit by the OPEC oil price increases and the world depression which they triggered.

In 1993, the figures were, in terms of US dollars: 18,060 for Hong Kong, 19,850 for Singapore, 7,660 for South Korea, compared with 18,060 for the United Kingdom and 300 for India. In terms of purchasing power parity, sometimes a better measure of real product, Hong Kong was at 87 per cent of the American figure, Singapore at 79 per cent, South Korea at 39 per cent, compared with the UK at 70 per cent. Lately several other countries have registered steep growth curves, including Malaysia and Indonesia, both former colonies, and Thailand, which had never been subjected to colonial status by a European power.

Clearly, productivity rises in that sector will have a particularly large impact on increases in the overall efficiency of an economy. They are, however, less easy to quantify directly, since there is no obvious weight or unit measure, such as tons of steel or numbers of cars produced per man-hour, of the kind which can be found in manufacturing. Changes in productivity in the services therefore tend to be 24 Economic development commonly measured by rises in incomes of people employed in that sector, on the grounds that they would not be paid if they did not add appropriate values by their work.

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