By Efraim Karsh
Bringing jointly Israeli, American and eu experts from the fields of heart East historical past, diplomacy, technique and economics, this publication bargains a entire "post bellum" research of the impression and implications of the Iran-Iraq struggle. The publication begins with an exam of the war's impression at the family and international affairs of the 2 belligerents, maintains with a dialogue of the political ramifications of the struggle in either the nearby and the worldwide spheres, and concludes via studying the industrial, army and strategic implications.
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Additional resources for The Iran-Iraq War: Impact and Implications
Consequently the agreement was followed by a period of much-reduced tension between Iran and Iraq which lasted for four years - until the overthrow of the Shah. The other Gulf states, for their part,while criticizing Iraq for compromising 'historical Arab rights' in signing the Algiers Agreement, did not view Iran's rise to prominence negatively, as this development bridled Iraq's ambitions in the Gulf and, in consequence, tempered its radical zeal and diminished its pressures on the conservative regimes.
See Rafsanjani's speech in Qom, 24 September, broadcast by Tehran radio on 25 September and excerpted in SWB, ME/0267/A/4, 27 September 1988. Tehran home service, 6 October excerpted in SWB, ME/0277/A/2, 8 October 1988. President Khamenei. Sermon, Tehran University, 8 April, excerpted in SWB, ME/0122/A/3, 11 April 1988. See his interview with Tehran Television, 18 April in SWB, ME/0130/A/6, 20 April 1988. 2 From Ideological Zeal to Geopolitical Realism: The Islamic Republic and the Gulf Efraim Karsh There are probably no two political systems more antithetic than monarchic and republican Iran; the deep ideological gulf between these two regimes dating back to the millenarian cultural-religious confrontation between West and East: between the drive for modernization and the yearning for the Islamic origins; between the cultural emulation and the political alignment with the West and the perception of Western civilization as the source of all evils; between the acceptance of the modem international system based on the nation-state and the Islamic internationalist vision of the ummah (religious body or community) as the core political unit in international affairs.
Later, after the war, Rafsanjani was to claim that of total losses in the war of 133,000 killed, lO11,000 were attributable to air and missile attacks on cities,u The effect of this was doubled by the resumption by Iraq of the use of chemical weapons at the front, notably in the attack in February 1988 on the town of Halabja in the north. Again the effects may have been greater psychologically than they were militarily. But it did not escape notice in Iran that the international outcry at documented uses of these banned substances was relatively restrained when they fell on Iranian soldiers or villages.