By Barry Rubin, Walter Laqueur
An important resource?completely revised and up to date for the 60th anniversary of the founding of Israel
In print for 40 years , The Israel-Arab Reader is a radical and up to date consultant to the continued predicament within the heart East. It covers the whole spectrum of the Israel-Arab conflict?including a brand new bankruptcy recounting the Gaza withdrawal, the Hamas election victory, and the Lebanon-Israel battle. that includes a brand new creation that gives an summary of the prior one hundred fifteen years of clash, and organized chronologically and with out bias, this complete reference comprises speeches, letters, articles, timelines, and reviews facing the entire significant pursuits within the quarter.
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Similarly, ethnic diversity was temporarily subsumed in the wholeness of a Pakistani Muslim identity. After 1947, when the time came to transform it into a full-fledged party the AIML, now the Pakistan Muslim League (PML), lost its core leadership and failed to provide a national agenda. Submerged differences resurfaced and the League itself became the first casualty of a politics where personal loyalties overrode party interests. Problems of membership and of formulating a viable manifesto together with the absence of a realistic policy based on a synthesis of the polarising forces of religion and reformism catapulted the PML into chaos.
4 Religion has certainly played a crucial role in the recent history of the sub-continent and continues to do so, particularly in India, with a new-found vigour. However, as mentioned earlier, after independence it was language that was destined to create fissions - amply helped by geography and uneven politico-economic development. As elsewhere in South Asia, linguistic and geographic factors in Pakistan have continued to play a significant role in ethnic identification. Pakistan was and is a multi-lingual and essentially plural society.
The former East Pakistan, however, despite its numerical preponderance and socio-cultural homogeneity found itself relegated to a diminished status. In a similar though less antagonistic way the elites from smaller provinces have had feelings of awe towards the Punjab and, over the years, 'Punjabi domination' has become a frequent reference in Pakistani political parlance. Sindh Sindh, the second largest province in the country with a significant share in the national population and socio-economic activities, was designated as a separate province in 1936.