Download The Magnetic Universe: The Elusive Traces of an Invisible by J. B. Zirker PDF

By J. B. Zirker

Magnetic fields permeate our giant universe, urging electrically charged debris on their classes, powering sun and stellar flares, and focusing the serious task of pulsars and neutron stars.Magnetic fields are present in each nook of the cosmos. for many years, astrophysicists have pointed out them via their results on noticeable mild, radio waves, and x-rays. J. B. Zirker summarizes our deep wisdom of magnetism, pointing to what's but unknown approximately its astrophysical functions. In transparent, nonmathematical prose, Zirker follows the path of magnetic exploration from the auroral belts of Earth to the farthest reaches of area. He courses readers on a desirable trip of discovery to appreciate how magnetic forces are created and the way they form the universe. He offers the old heritage had to delight in interesting new learn through introducing readers to the good scientists who've studied magnetic fields. scholars and beginner astronomers alike will savor the readable prose and accomplished assurance of The Magnetic Universe. (June 2010)

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In shear (S) waves, the particles oscillate perpendicular to the wave’s direction. Solid rock can transmit both types, but molten rock can transmit only the P wave, because two sliding layers can couple only weakly. Both types of waves are reflected and refracted as they pass between layers of different temperature and composition. 22 THE MAGNETIC UNIVERSE Richard D. Oldham, an Irish geologist, was the first to identify such waves. In 1906 he noticed a “shadow zone” on the hemisphere opposite an earthquake, in which P waves were excluded.

But I digress. Let’s return to the serious search for an understanding of the cycle. MODELS OF THE SOLAR CYCLE We saw in chapter 2 how theorists such as Edward Bullard, Walter Elsasser, and Eugene Parker developed the outlines of a theory for the maintenance of the Earth’s magnetic field. They proposed that the field is generated by a selfexcited dynamo in the Earth’s liquid metal core. The rotation of the electrically conducting core through an existing poloidal field would generate a toroidal field.

It was devastating. Progress in explaining the Earth’s field stalled until geophysicists learned much more about the interior of the Earth. A S M AT T E R I N G O F S E I S M O L O G Y Sir Isaac Newton made the first important discovery about the Earth’s interior. Using his studies of the force of gravity, he was able to calculate that the average density of the Earth is more than twice that of the rocks at the surface. That meant that the Earth has a dense core. Seismologists, who study the waves that earthquakes produce, eventually confirmed the existence of a core and gave us good estimates of its size and composition.

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