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By Johnston Birchall

Mutuality has turn into an issue of dialogue lately for a complete diversity of teachers and social commentators. The 'demutualisation' of banks and development societies has been partnered through the assumption of a 'new mutualism' , forming a collection of social values and ideology, and this assortment appears to be like on the manifestations of those developments and the consequences for the long run.

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Extra info for The New Mutualism in Public Policy (Routledge Studies in Business Organization and Networks, 15,)

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1995) ‘Mutuality, Performance and Executive Corporation’, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 57, pp. 295–308. Jensen, M. C. and Meckling, W. H. (1976) ‘Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behaviour, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure’, Journal of Financial Economics, 3(4), pp. 305–360. Kay, J. (1991) ‘The Economics of Mutuality’, Annals of Public and Co-operative Economics, 62(3). Llewellyn, D. T. ’, LUBC—BSA Project Paper No 2. Llewellyn, D. T. and Holmes, M. (1991) ‘In Defence of Mutuality: A Redress to an Emerging Conventional Wisdom’, Annals of Public and Co-operative Economics, 62(3).

1 per cent. 64 per cent. 1, it is clear that mutual building societies would face a margin advantage vis-a`-vis plc banks at all growth rates up to 18 per cent per annum. 6 per cent for the Yorkshire. 7 per cent for the Chelsea. 7 per cent during 1996. Clearly, these figures are well below the critical growth rate (g1) of 18 per cent, and it is therefore not surprising that mutual building societies were able to reduce margins aggressively in the mortgage market in the mid- to late 1990s and gain market share relative to the banks and, in particular, the recently converted ‘mortgage banks’.

Second, in the case where the plc raised all capital externally (in itself an extreme assumption), the mutual would still 22 The new mutualism in public policy enjoy a margin advantage at growth rates of either less than g1 (on the most favourable assumption for plcs) or less than g2. In order to gain some insight as to the critical growth rate implied by g1 we have undertaken some simulations. 1) and an assumed minimum and binding capital ratio of 4 per cent. e. 2 translates a range of required ROEs into implied required ROAs, again assuming a required minimum equity to assets ratio of 4 per cent (which would be appropriate for the mortgage market).

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