Download The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the by Mustafa Aksakal PDF

By Mustafa Aksakal

Why did the Ottoman Empire input the 1st global warfare in past due October 1914, months after the war's devastations had turn into transparent? have been its leaders 'simple-minded,' 'below-average' members, because the doyen of Turkish diplomatic heritage has argued? Or, as others have claimed, did the Ottomans input the conflict simply because conflict Minister Enver Pasha, dictating Ottoman judgements, was once in thrall to the Germans and to his personal expansionist desires? according to formerly untapped Ottoman and eu resources, Mustafa Aksakal's dramatic examine demanding situations this consensus. It demonstrates that accountability went a long way past Enver, that the line to struggle was once paved through the calls for of a politically public, and that the Ottoman management sought the German alliance because the purely method out of an internet of foreign threats and household insecurities, selecting an get away whose catastrophic effects for the empire and seismic effect at the center East are felt even this day.

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S ¸ ükrü Haniog˘lu, “Jön Türk Basını,” in Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye Ansiklopedisi, ed. Murat Belge (Istanbul: I˙ letis¸im Yayınları, 1985), vol. III, 848–9, and Young Turks in Opposition, 156–8. Ahmed Saib, Tarih-i Mes¸rutiyet Ve S¸ark Mesele-i Hazırası, 104–5. For the origins of Turkism in its cultural rather than political form, see David Kushner, The Rise of Turkish Nationalism, 1876–1908 (Totowa: Frank Cass, 1977), 7–19, 27–49, 81–9. Naci ˙Ismail, writing under the pseudonym Habil Adem, attributed the work to Jones Moll, Londra Konferansı’ndaki Meselelerden: Anadolu’da Türkiye Yas¸ayacak Mı?

D. , University of Kiel, Germany (1968), 57–68; Herbert Landolin Müller, Islam, g˘ iha¯d (“Heiliger Krieg”) und Deutsches Reich: Ein Nachspiel zur wilhelminischen Weltpolitik im Maghreb, 1912–1918 (New York: Peter Lang, 1991), 173–85. Donald M. McKale, War by Revolution: Germany and Great Britain in the Middle East in the Era of World War I (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1998), 17–96. For an example of German pan-Islamism, see Max Freiherr von Oppenheim, “Die Revolutionierung der islamischen Gebiete unserer Feinde” [Fostering revolution in the Islamic territories of our enemies], undated manuscript in Jäckh Papers, Yale University Library, Box 2, Folder 47.

14 The Ottoman Road to War in 1914 a suitable, even ideal, environment for the realization of such drastic changes. The Young Turks intended to transform the empire into a politically and economically independent, modern country by removing foreign control and cultivating a citizenry that would be loyal to the state. These individuals imagined that conditions of war could offer an appropriate pretext for the expulsion of foreign businesses and the nullification of fiscal and legal exemptions for foreign nationals, the so-called “capitulations” (their actual cancellation on October 1, 1914, announced on September 9, produced massive public celebrations).

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