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By Igorʹ Mikhaĭlovich Dʹi︠a︡konov

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The transitional stage between the Primitive Communal, or Second Phase and the Ancient Communal, or Third Phase begins with the creation of big economies. They are organised either for the maintenance of the cult of the main community deity, or for the chief with his entourage. e. emperor (from Latin caesar); but their power was by means imperial, and they rather resemble the early medieval kings (kuningaz); this term is actually usual in the Western scholarly literature. One might also call them ‘princes’.

Therefore, to escape misunderstanding, we will use the term applied in Greece to state slaves settled on the land: helots. Helots, as we understand the term, are equivalent, on state property, to patriarchal slaves. The rulers of nomes or city-states, supported by the staff of prosperous state economies which they had seized, could organise numerous armed troops independent of the council, the popular assembly, and other bodies of community self-government. e. not limited by any other legal bodies; this power could extend to the whole network of irrigation canals in Lower Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.

Let us call the reader’s particular attention to the slaves who not only lacked ownership of the means of production but were themselves owned by those who exploited them: as if they were living instruments for production. The exploitation of slaves was pursued more comprehensively than in any other Phase in the historical process. The productivity of slave labour in the Third Phase, with its very primitive working tools, was not appreciably different from that of a peasant who was a member of the community – provided the slave was under constant supervision.

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