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By Williamson R.C.

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Diode and SCR reverse recovery current transients can also propagate within equipment. Arcing loads may require shielding of control circuits. In general, a solid grounding system will minimize problems. Apparatus for surge protection covers the range from the little discs in 120-V power strips for computers to the giant lightning arresters on 765-kV transmission lines. Many types now utilize the nonlinear characteristics of MOVs. These ZnO ceramic elements have a low 20 2 ◊ Power Apparatus leakage current as the applied voltage is increased until a threshold is reached at which the current will increase rapidly for higher voltages.

This essay has been a bit cavalier in equating, by implication, impedance to reactance. In most power systems work, the resistive losses are small enough to have little effect on fault currents or regulation, so impedance is often considered as reactance in calculations. The same is true of commutation in converters where resistance does play a small role. Chapter 3 Analytical Tools Several specialized analytical tools have been developed to aid in the solution of power and power electronics circuits.

If the set of phasors just resolved were to represent load impedances, the line currents could be determined by impressing the balanced line voltages onto the three sequence networks separately and adding the three components of each line current. Symmetrical components are often used to describe the characteristics of overhead transmission lines. For example, the familiar set of three conductors in a horizontal row has equal couplings from the two outer lines to the center line, but they have a different coupling to each other.

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