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By Paul Kennedy

Approximately nationwide and overseas energy within the "modern" or submit Renaissance interval. Explains how a number of the powers have risen and fallen over the five centuries because the formation of the "new monarchies" in W. Europe.

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Military history, Modern. 4. Armaments—Economic aspects. 5. Balance of power. I. Title. 82 88-40123 eISBN: 978-0-307-77356-2 Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following for permission to reprint previously published material: Lexington Books, D. C. Heath and Company: An illustration from American Defense Annual 1987–1988, edited by Joseph Kruzel, Copyright © 1987, D. C. : Lexington Books, D. C. Heath and Company). Reprinted by permission of the publisher. 1 To Cath Acknowledgments Whatever the weaknesses of this book, they would have been far greater without the kind help of friends.

Even in the Near East there was no quiet flank, thanks to a disastrous religious split in the Muslim world which occurred when the Shi’ite branch, based in Iraq and then in Persia, challenged the prevailing Sunni practices and teachings. At times, the situation was not unlike that of the contemporary religious struggles in Germany, and the sultan could maintain his dominance only by crushing Shi’ite dissidents with force. However, across the border the Shi’ite kingdom of Persia under Abbas the Great was quite prepared to ally with European states against the Ottomans, just as France had worked with the “infidel” Turk against the Holy Roman Empire.

The argument being offered here will receive much more elaborate analysis in the text itself, but can be summarized very briefly: The relative strengths of the leading nations in world affairs never remain constant, principally because of the uneven rate of growth among different societies and of the technological and organizational breakthroughs which bring a greater advantage to one society than to another. For example, the coming of the long-range gunned sailing ship and the rise of the Atlantic trades after 1500 was not uniformly beneficial to all the states of Europe—it boosted some much more than others.

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