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By Antonio Carlos Quicoli

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E . th e 'root S ' i n Emonds ' terminology) . At thi s stage , i t ma y see m arbitrar y t o postulat e NP Detachment a s distinct fro m Subject Replacement fo r th e tw o rule s appea r superficiall y t o have th e sam e effect . However , a s wil l becom e clea r i n a moment , ther e ar e in fac t goo d reason s fo r separatin g th e tw o rules . NP Detachment ( a kin d o f 'topicalization ' rule) , unlik e Subject Replace ment whic h i s cyclic , i s a post-cycli c rul e an d follow s post-cycli c SubjectVerb Agreement.

First notic e tha t Passiv e is a 'structur e preserving ' transformatio n (i n th e sense o f Emond s (1970)) . A s Emond s point s out , on e o f th e characteristic s of 'structur e perserving ' i n thi s sense , i s th e fac t tha t sentence s t o whic h Passive has applie d ca n appea r embedde d : 26 ON TH E PORTUGUES E VER B PARECER (75) O bolo foi comido por Juca. 'The cake was eaten by Juca'. (76) Fabiano crê que o bolo foi comido por Juca. 'Fabiano believes that the cake was eaten by Juca'.

Apparentl y we ca n dispens e wit h 'doubl y filled ' node s i n thes e case s and , a t th e sam e time, maintai n Edmonds ' clai m intac t i f w e assum e fo r Englis h a n analysi s in whic h th e that-clauses tha t appea r a s th e surfac e structur e subjec t o f verb s of th e imply, prove typ e ar e treate d a s S' s embedde d unde r a nou n phras e having a s it s nomina l hea d th e neute r pronou n it i n dee p structure . I n tha t case Englis h sentence s woul d b e analyse d jus t lik e Spanis h sentence s lik e (83a) wher e th e que- clause appear s embedde d unde r a nou n phras e whic h has a s it s hea d nou n th e neute r pronou n el 'it' .

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