By Max Planck
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Extra resources for Theory of electricity and magnetism,: Being volume III of Introduction to theoretical physics
1. The structure of the moment in the magnetic state is well defined. 2. The demagnetization occurs on a lower energy scale and can sometimes be studied in a continuous manner by varying the pressure, a very clean, parameter. 3. The local demagnetization can profitably be studied even in concentrated systems, since overlap between neighboring 4 / states is negligible. Some indications for "soft" moments on rare earth ions are fairly old. In cerium metal the large discontinuous volume contraction under pressure (17%, Lawson and Tang ) and a discontinuous drop of the susceptibility around 200°K  were recognized as manifestations of an electronic phase transition involving the 4 / electron.
Pd, Sc, V) such rare earth metals may be considered as nonmagnetic. The nonmagnetic 4 / character is clearest in the case of Ce and Yb compounds (Fig. 3a, b). The susceptibility is nearly temperature independent already at room temperature (some times with indications of Curie-Weiss behavior above). It exhibits often a very weak broad maximum near 100-200°K, and a moderate rise at lower temperature, but does not diverge as T —► 0. (Proper account must be taken of the susceptibility of other magnetic rare earth impurities .
These features are: (a) intermediate valence phases with continuous reversible variation of the fraction with pressure or concentration; (b) intermediate suscepti bility at high temperature; (c) constant susceptibility as T-^*0; (d) absence of magnetic order. The phenomena in question occur when the rare earth ions change their valence from one ionic state with definite Hund's rule character to another. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that the basic ingredients of the intermediate valence state are these two ionic states and the conduction band only.